Scientific Management Theory


Find More Scientific Management Theory

Looking for essays on scientific management theory? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

scientific management theory Adult education in the u.s.

1). INTRODUCTION

In adult education, The concept of central learning theory is self-directed learning.  He (1985) said that because the concept is so central to what adult education is all about, self-directed learning has been one of the field's high-interest topics for more than a decade (Mezirow, 1988).
Many people like researchers theorists and so on have all asked the pistons: what is self-directed learning?  What kinds of people are engaged in it?  How can we properly provide it to educator and learner.  How can we improve learners' ability as using it?
We know that we must define the mission of education as to produce competent people who are capable of applying their knowledge under changing social and survival conditions.  Adult education must be primarily concerned with providing the resources and support for self-directed inquirers.
One role of the adult education can be stated positively as helping individuals to develop the attitude that learning is lifelong process and to acquire the skills of self-directed learning.  Another ultimate need of individuals is to achieve complete self-identity.  A third ultimate need of individuals is to mature.
In this paper, the researcher is approaching methods to help adult learners to develop themselves with strong confidence.  So it is very important to develop skills increasing adult learners through self-directness and self-efficacy.

Since Branduras (1997) original paper, self-efficacy theory has been applied in education settings to various grade levels (e.g., Elementary, Secondary, Post-secondary), content domains, and student ability levels.
The author will not apply self-efficacy to adult education field but to treat the relation between self-directedness and self-efficacy to improve adults attitude for participating education as a re-learner.  The paper may treat of basic knowledge about self-efficacy and reciprocal relation between both two.

2). SELF - DIRECTEDNESS

1.  SELF - DIRECTED LEARNING
A. What is Self – Directed Learning
An estimated 70 percent of adult learning is self-directed learning (Cross 1981).  Self-directed learning has been described as "a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others," to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes (Knowles 1975).
Whether or not learning is self-directed depends not on the subject matter to be learned or on the instructional methods used.  Instead, self-directedness depends on who is in charge-which decides what should be learned, who should learn it, what methods and resources should be used, and how the success of the effort should be measured.  To the extent the learner makes those decisions, the learning is generally considered to be self-directed.
Perhaps only degrees of self-directedness are actually possible, given the frequent necessity of maintaining institutional standards and, as Mezirow (1985) points out, the impossibility of freely choosing among objectives unless all possible objectives are known.  Some writers have pointed out that Mocker and Spear's model could be viewed as a continuum rather than as a matrix
Some self-directed learning takes place in comparative isolation in secluded libraries. Other self-directed learners engage in more interpersonal communication (with experts and peers, for instance) than is typically available in conventional classroom education.

B. Who is Engaged in Self – Directed Learning
About 90 percent of all adults conduct at least one self-directed learning project per year.  Typical learners engage in five, spending an average of 100 hours on each project (Tough 1978).  It is important to bear in mind that most of the research that has been conducted on self-directed learning has investigated the activities of middle-class adults.
Many self-directed learners are attempting to obtain new skills, knowledge, and attitudes to improve their work performance.  Others conduct their self-directed learning to improve finally life and health, enjoy the arts and physical recreation, participate in a hobby, or simply develop their intellectual capital.
Adult educators have found that some adults are not able to engage in self-directed learning because they lack independence, confidence, or resources.  Not all adults prefer the self-directed option, and even the adults who practice self-directed learning also engage in more formal educational experiences such as teacher-directed courses (Brookfield 1985).
Perhaps no aspect of andragogy has accepted so much attention and debate as the premise that adults ... more

scientific management theory

Research on Scientific Management Theory

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Scientific Management Theory" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Scientific Management Theory essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Scientific Management Theory and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Scientific Management Theory

Find essay on Scientific Management Theory

Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide

Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide


       Submitted in partial fulfillment of B.S. in Business Administration
       Century University, New Mexico
       Grade = 95% A}

       Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide, by Robert Murdick, R.
Carl Moor and Richard H. Eckhouse, attempts to tie together the broad policies
and interrelationships that exist among the many functional areas which
undergraduate students typically study.  The authors intend the text to
supplement the typical case book and/or computer simulations used in teaching
business strategy (ix).  Situational analysis is presented, as is a structure
for developing strategy.  Practicality and real world experience is combined
with educational theory to provide as complete a picture as possible of strategy
in business.
       The authors have divided the text into 15 chapters with no further
subdivisions. It is possible, however, to group the chapters into specific areas
of study.  For example, the first chapter, "Business Failure -- Business
Success," examines why businesses fail, and provides the reason for continuing
with the remainder of the text.  The next two chapters focus on the "field of
action," including the business environment and the business system.  The fourth
and fifth chapters introduce strategic management (chapter 4) and the struggle
not only to survive, but to prosper using strategic management (chapter 5).
Chapters Six through Nine address specific functional areas (marketing,
accounting/finance, production, and engineering/research and development).
Chapters 10 and 11 introduce the reader to the problems of managing human
resources (chapter 10) and data processing resources (chapter 11).  The last
four chapters discuss the issues involved with analyzing business situations.
Multinational business analysis is the subject of chapter 12, while chapter 13
turns the reader's attention to how to conduct an industry study.  Chapters 14
and 15 focus on how to analyze a case and illustrations of case analysis,
respectively.  The text concludes with an appendix of symbols used by those who
evaluate reports and a general index to topics within the book. The authors make
good and frequent use of charts, graphs, forms and other graphic techniques to
illustrate their points.  Each chapter concludes with a selected bibliography
that the student may use for additional research.  The book is printed entirely
in black ink; the use of color for key concepts would have enhanced the book's
value as a teaching text.  Visually, the book is crowded without much white
space for readers to make notes.  Key concepts could also have been separated
from supporting text in a more clear manner.  While each chapter has a summary,
they do not have an introduction or a listing of key words of concepts that the
student should learn as a result of studying each chapter.  Such aids would make
the book more valuable and enhance the learning experience of readers. Chapter 1
examines why some businesses fail and why others succeed.  The first sentence in
the book states exactly where the authors stand on the issue: "Businesses fail
because managers fail" (1).  The authors present a chart that illustrates how
businesses large and small can both have "relatively short successful life
spans" (1) Reasons for the ultimate failure are presented in this chart, and the
authors go into greater detail in the text. Fundamentally, the authors find that
managers in business are unable to determine what action to take, or are unable
to implement the necessary action once they have  identified it.  The reasons
for these shortcomings are many, but the authors find that managers may be
unable to differentiate between problems and symptoms.  To help their readers
overcome this problem and successfully manage one or more businesses, Murdick,
Moor and Eckhouse identify five points that they address in the remaining 14
chapters. One, they present the field of action in which managers must operate.
Two, they describe common major problems that must be identified and solved in
order for firms to prosper.  Three, they present a framework for determining a
unified sense of direction.  Four, they give a brief account of policies and
problems in the major functional areas of business.  Five, they give detailed
case and analysis tools to enhance the reader's ability to identify complex
business problems. Chapter 1 concludes with a list of business failures and
their causes of 1987, helping the student to understand the importance of
strategic management in the success or failure of a company (4). In Chapter 2,
the authors move to consider the field of action, or the arena in which business
executives and businesses operate.  Chapters 2 and 3 focus ... more

scientific management theory

FAQ

What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling

@Gusgustt

Browse Essays

  • S: An MBA Graduate Defined S: An MBA Graduate Defined An MBA Graduate Defined An MBA Graduate Defined An MBA is a degree awarded to individuals who complete required coursework in the field of Management Science. The MBA title stands for Master of Business Administration and implies that the person holding the degree is qualified to hold a position in senior management within a firm. An MBA manager is similar to the captain of a ship. He is responsible for making decisions and plans about the firm and for controlling the firms employees. The goa...
  • C: Adult education in the u.s. C: Adult education in the u.s. Adult education in the u.s. 1). INTRODUCTION In adult education, The concept of central learning theory is self-directed learning. He (1985) said that because the concept is so central to what adult education is all about, self-directed learning has been one of the field\'s high-interest topics for more than a decade (Mezirow, 1988). Many people like researchers theorists and so on have all asked the pistons: what is self-directed learning? What kinds of people are engaged in it? How can we prop...
  • I: Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Ac I: Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Ac Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide Submitted in partial fulfillment of B.S. in Business Administration Century University, New Mexico Grade = 95% A} Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide, by Robert Murdick, R. Carl Moor and Richard H. Eckhouse, attempts to tie together the broad policies and interrelationships that exist among the many functional areas which undergraduate students typically study. The ...
  • E: Early Europeans E: Early Europeans Early Europeans EARLY EUROPEANS By: Travis H. The first Europeans to arrive in North America were Norse, traveling west from Greenland, where Erik the Red had founded a settlement around the year 985. In 1001 his son Leif is thought to have explored the northeast coast of what is now Canada and spent at least one winter there. While Norse sagas suggest that Viking sailors explored the Atlantic coast of North America down as far as the Bahamas, such claims remain unproven. In 1963, however, the r...
  • N: Contracts N: Contracts Contracts Motivation Theory in Business A simple game of bingo, if analyzed closely, can be shown to be a tedious task consisting of a repetitive action that occurs after being prompted by a repetitive stimulus. The skill level needed to make that action is low, and the variability in the rules of the game rarely changes. This game is not unlike many of the jobs that can be classified as having low motivational potential scores (Hackman, et al). So why do people not only enjoy playing games like...
  • T: General Synopsis Of Philosophy T: General Synopsis Of Philosophy General Synopsis Of Philosophy Machiavelli: Principality and Republic Among the most widely-read of the Renaissance thinkers was Niccolo Machiavelli, a Florentine politician who retired from public service to write at length on the skill required for successfully running the state. Impatient with abstract reflections on the way things ought to be, Machiavelli focussed on the way things are, illustrating his own intensely practical convictions with frequent examples from the historical record. Al...
  • I: Paper Technology I: Paper Technology Paper Technology Leadership and Motiviation 1. Introduction and Definition 2. Leadership Types a. Natural born leader b. Developed leader 3. Leadership Models a. Traditional b. Non-traditional 4. Leadership Traits a. Make people feel important b. Promote your vision c. Treat others as you want to be treated d. Take responsibility for your actions 5. Motivational Theories a. Classical Theory and Scientific Management b. Behavior theory c. Contemporary Motivational Theories ***********************...
  • F: Elderly abuse F: Elderly abuse elderly abuse ? The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study ? Executive Summary ? Introduction and Background America\'s burgeoning elder population has affected every segment of the social, political, and economic landscape. Public debate of the issues surrounding the special needs of the approximately 44 million persons in this country age 60 years and over has heightened national awareness and concern. As a result, public policies relating to issues such as retirement security, affordable long-t...
  • I: Strategic business plan I: Strategic business plan strategic business plan ANDY PULLEN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 100 EXAMINATION NUMBER TWO Lars this is how you create a business plan. First you have to set the vision, goals, and objectives of your business. The most important driver for almost any business plan is return on investment (ROI). Commonly, when someone starts to write a business plan for the first time you need to determine what is your objective? The essential planning elements are identifying your objectives. What you are going to s...
  • C: The Increasing Application of Scientific Management Principles Of Work C: The Increasing Application of Scientific Management Principles Of Work ...
  •  : PART ONE CONTENTS --------------------3 : PART ONE CONTENTS --------------------3 PART ONE CONTENTS --------------------3 SELFREALISATION AND DIRECTION FOR THE ADOLESCENT PART TWO CONTENTS ---------------------59 MANIFESTATIONS OF AWARENESS PART THREE CONTENTS -----------------104 PHILOSOPHICAL CONTENTS PART ONE. BOLD = MAIN TITLES. REGULAR = SUB TITLES. ----------------------------------------------------------------PAGE FORWARD -----------------------------------------------------4 INTELLECTUALITY -----------------------------------------8 DEDICATION -----------------------...
  • M: The Canada Goose M: The Canada Goose The Canada Goose The Canada Goose The Branta Canadensis, better known as the Canada Goose is a magnificent bird which can be found all over North America. People from all over North America look towards the sky when the Canada Geese go honking overhead in their trademark V formation, and because they nest all over Canada and some of the United States many people have a chance to witness the birds migration to the nesting grounds and back to the wintering grounds. The Canada Goose is respected by...
  • A: mind/body A: mind/body mind/body The Methodology of Therapeutic Processes of the Mind and Their Effect on the Body The mind has an incredible power. We see it as we go through our everyday activities, constantly displaying the wonders of logic, thought, memory and creativity. Yet, can the mind be more powerful than we know? Is it possible to reduce or even eliminate pain, illness and disease by using the natural powers it possesses? Can the mind heal? Many researchers and scientists have explored that question, and wh...
  • N: Ovarian Cancer N: Ovarian Cancer Ovarian Cancer Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by ...
  • A: Polygraphs A: Polygraphs Polygraphs Polygraphs Introduction Homo Sapiens have yearned for a reliable and consistently correct way of finding out if one is telling the truth since ancient times. Early societies used torture. Statements made by a person on the rack were considered especially believable. (Jussim, pg.65) There was also trial by ordeal, which was based on superstition. For instance, if there were two suspects for one crime, it was thought that the innocent would be stronger in combat and thus vanquish ...
  • G: Paul A. Samuelson G: Paul A. Samuelson Paul A. Samuelson BIG ISSUES OF ECONOMIC CONCERN Samuelson has offered the world many economic theories. One area he is widely known for is his views on the spending multiplier. Samuelson has presented a way through his aggregate demand model to demonstrate how the spending multiplier affects individual types of spending. There are several components of aggregate demand. The basis for understanding this model is as follows: #61656; An increase in prices causes a drop in household assets, thus ca...
  • E: Paul A. Samuelson E: Paul A. Samuelson Paul A. Samuelson BIG ISSUES OF ECONOMIC CONCERN Samuelson has offered the world many economic theories. One area he is widely known for is his views on the spending multiplier. Samuelson has presented a way through his aggregate demand model to demonstrate how the spending multiplier affects individual types of spending. There are several components of aggregate demand. The basis for understanding this model is as follows: #61656; An increase in prices causes a drop in household assets, thus ca...
  • M: The great debate-School uniforms M: The great debate-School uniforms The great debate-School uniforms Imagine that you pick your seven-year-old child up from school. He is crying and wearing a different outfit than the one he wore to school. This is naturally upsetting but not as upsetting as your next discovery. His shirt, one you have never seen before, has a large L written on the sleeve in permanent marker; his shorts, also not his, are too large, stained and faded. Upon questioning your child, you discover that, despite your best efforts at compliance, your ...
  • E: Hawthrone studies E: Hawthrone studies hawthrone studies Hawthorne Studies The Hawthorne Studies, conducted at Western Electric\'s Hawthorne plant outside Chicago, starting in 1924 and running through 1936, were intended to bring about a greater understanding of the effects of working conditions on worker productivity. The results of the experiments were contrary to the management theory of the time (Scientific Management), and were key in bringing about an understanding of motivation factors in employment Basically, a series of stud...
  • N: Mike Porter N: Mike Porter Mike Porter HYPERLINK http://www.best-in-class.com INCLUDEPICTURE d ../../images/toolbar/bp_logo.gif HYPERLINK http://www.best-in-class.com HYPERLINK http://www.best-in-class.com HYPERLINK http://www.best-in-class.com/about/ HYPERLINK http://www.best-in-class.com/site_tools/contact2.htm HYPERLINK http://www.best-in-class.com/site_tools/search.htm HYPERLINK http://www.best-in-class.com/research/ http://www.best-in-class.com/research/ PRIVATE TYPE=PICT;ALT=Customized Benchmarking ...
  • T: Durkheim T: Durkheim durkheim In 1776, Adam Smith opened The Wealth of Nations with the observation that the greatest improvements in the productive powers of labour, and the greatest part of the skill, dexterity, and judgement with which it is anywhere directed, or applied, seem to have been the effects of the division of labour.1 Despite the numerous economic advantages thus derived, however, Smith insisted that the division of labor was not itself the effect of any human wisdom or foresight; rather, it was the ...
  •  : Exploring the career of a comp : Exploring the career of a comp Exploring the career of a comp Exploring the Career of A Computer Programmer I. Job Description A. Role of Computer Programmer B. Nature of Work II. Educational Preparation A. High School B. Postsecondary Education III. Potential Earnings A. Lowest Paid B. Average ( Median ) C. Highest Paid IV. Possible Benefits A. Discounts B. Use of Company Equipment V. Possible Liabilities A. Eye Strain B. Back Discomfort C. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome The rapid spread of computers in todays society has bought fo...
  • T: The Abstract Wild T: The Abstract Wild The Abstract Wild #9;Jack Turner\'s The Abstract Wild is a complex argument that discusses many issues and ultimately defends the wild in all of its forms. He opens the novel with a narrative story about a time when he explored the Maze in Utah and stumbled across ancient pictographs. Turner tells this story to describe what a truly wild and unmediated experience is. The ideas of the aura, magic, and wildness that places contain is introduced in this story. Turner had a spiritual connection with...
  • H: Human Resource Management in Business H: Human Resource Management in Business Human Resource Management in Business Running Head: HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN BUSINESS Human Resource Management in Business Sylvan R. Wilcox Warner Southern College Abstract Human Resource Management (HRM) is no longer a personnel office that is simply a record-keeping and maintenance function. Huselid (1995) points out that there is a positive correlation that has developed between HRM as a strategic ally and company performance. HRM research has grown from an atheoretical origin to view or...
  • E: An Outline Of American History E: An Outline Of American History An Outline Of American History AN OUTLINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY Heaven and Earth never agreed better to frame a place for man\'s habitation. John Smith, 1607 CHAPTER 1 THE FIRST AMERICANS At the height of the Ice Age, between 34,000 and 30,000 B.C., much of the world\'s water was contained in vast continental ice sheets. As a result, the Bering Sea was hundreds of meters below its current level, and a land bridge, known as Beringia, emerged between Asia and North America. At its peak, Beringia i...