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sagittal crest Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

What is FAS/FASD?
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a set of physical and mental birth defects that can result when a woman drinks alcohol during her pregnancy. When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, such as beer, wine, or mixed drinks, so does her baby. Alcohol passes through the placenta right into the developing baby. The baby may suffer lifelong damage as a result.
FAS is characterized by brain damage, facial deformities, and growth deficits. Heart, liver, and kidney defects also are common, as well as vision and hearing problems. Individuals with FAS have difficulties with learning, attention, memory, and problem solving.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term describing the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. The term FASD is not intended for use as a clinical diagnosis.
FASD covers other terms such as:
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) - the only diagnosis given by doctors.
Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) - reserved for individuals with functional or cognitive impairments linked to prenatal alcohol exposure, including decreased head size at birth, structural brain abnormalities, and a pattern of behavioral and mental abnormalities
Alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) - describes the physical defects linked to prenatal alcohol exposure, including heart, skeletal, kidney, ear, and eye malformations
Fetal alcohol effects (FAE) - a term that has been popularly used to describe alcohol-exposed individuals whose condition does not meet the full criteria for an FAS diagnosis
What are the Statistics and Facts about FAS and FASD?
FASD is the leading known preventable cause of mental retardation and birth defects.
FASD affects 1 in 100 live births or as many as 40,000 infants each year.
An individual with fetal alcohol syndrome can incur a lifetime health cost of over $800,000.
In 2003, fetal alcohol syndrome cost the United States $5.4 billiondirect costs were $3.9 billion, while indirect costs added another $1.5 billion.
Children do not outgrow FASD. The physical and behavioral problems can last for a lifetime.
FAS and FASD are found in all racial and socio-economic groups.
FAS and FASD are not genetic disorders. Women with FAS or affected by FASD have healthy babies if they do not drink alcohol during their pregnancy.
Can I drink alcohol when I am pregnant?
No. Do not drink alcohol when you are pregnant. When you drink alcohol, such as beer, wine, or mixed drinks, so does your baby. Alcohol is a substance known to be harmful to human development. When it reaches the blood supply of the baby, it can cause permanent defects to the major organs and central nervous system.
Is there any kind of alcohol that is safe to drink during pregnancy?
No. Drinking any kind of alcohol can hurt your baby. Alcoholic drinks can include beer, wine, liquor, wine coolers, or mixed drinks.
What if I am pregnant and have been drinking?
If you drank alcohol before you knew you were pregnant, stop drinking now. Anytime a pregnant woman stops drinking, she decreases the risk of harm to the baby. If you are trying to get pregnant, do not drink alcohol. You may not know you are pregnant right away.
What if I drank during my last pregnancy and my baby was fine?
Every pregnancy is different. Drinking alcohol may hurt one baby more than another. You could have one child that is born healthy and another child that is born with problems.
What if a friend, partner, spouse or family member is drinking while pregnant?
Many women are unaware of the consequences of drinking during pregnancy. Some women believe wine or beer is not alcohol. In many cases, she may be suffering from alcoholism. She may need to know what effects alcohol can have on the baby. She also may need help getting into treatment. In such cases, you should contact a treatment professional at a local addiction center for advice on how to help.

http://www.nofas.org/faqs.aspx?id=5
Copyright 2001-2004 National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome




An individual's place, and success, in society is almost entirely determined by neurological functioning. A neurologically injured child is unable to meet the expectations of parents, family, peers, school, career and can endure a lifetime of failures. The largest cause of neurological damage in ... more

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HOW TOOLS TRANSFORMED PROTOHUMANS

According to archeological and physical record, tool use has had an enormous effect in the transformation of proto humans into modern humans.    What stimulated tool use was the proto humans intrest in new and easier ways to do things.   With the introduction of tools,  body morphology changed and reproductive fitness increased.    Evolution did not happened over night.   It took 4.5 million years for humans to get where they are today.
Scientists have concluded that about 3.5 million years ago, there was the first proto human.   A proto human resembles extinct hominid populations that had some but not all the features of a modern homo sapien.   Such features were prolonged moments of bipedality, change in the pelvis and the reduction of the sagittal crest. (Diamond 1992 pg 34)   In order for this proto human to evolve into a human, it needed tools.   Some of the tools might have been discovered by accident or by early creative geniuses?   The way they discovered the tools is unknown, but the changes the tools made were to the physical morphology and the body behavior.    They began to walk upright, gathered supplies, cut food, and used weapons.(Diamond 1992 pg. 40)
About 3 million years ago, after generations of learning how to use these tools, the hominid  came out of the trees, and stayed mostly on the ground.   The animal had an
abundance of food and water and lived in a population of; on the ground proto-human animals.   Some adapted to ground life and started to become bipedal, but more than half of them stayed on all fours.   The bipedal hominids vision increased, making it able to see and do more.  It obtained the ability to use weapons more effectively and efficiently because it had arms with agility.    It found all the good meat  and valued resources then eventually took over the whole community.   Soon after the bipedal creatures gained control the hominids on four legs die off, precisely because they could not evolve quickly enough and produce healthy, if any, offspring.    The bipedal community grew into the hundreds and thousands.      Tough, healthy, and agile hominids,  the strong survived and the females produced healthy offspring which is called reproductive fitness.   The mouth became smaller and the brain increased in size.    More brains equaled better tools, which lead to a faster, more efficient evolution.(Diamond 1992 pg 12)
According to the bone and fossil evidence that I have learned, this is my interpretation how evolution might have happened.   When a species develops tools, many things can a will change. The definition of a tool is, performing or facilitating mechanical operations.(Websters Ninth New Dictionary)  Take for instance a hominid that walks on all four limbs.    How easy would it be for a hominid, without agile arms, to mechanically operate a tool?   It would be very difficult.   This type of arboreal hominid, probably lives in a tree, swings from the branches, vision is not great, and is mostly a vegetarian.   After the proto human began to walk on two feet there hands became free and moveable.   Now give this hominid a sharp stick or a blunt object,  practice as how to properly use it, and
maybe arm agility.  Then over time (about 3 to 2.5 mya) the animal becomes a hunter,  being able to strike a predator, protect, and gain control over resources.  
In the movie 2001 Space Odyssey,(Anthropology 100 9/5/97) Stanley Kubrick gives his interpretation on how we evolve.   The movie shows groups of stem-primate type creatures who represent early proto-human communities.   The creatures begin to explore their environment finding resources and developing new ways to do things. The communities battled other primate communities for the natural resources in their environment.    One of the primates begins to break some objects with a bone it picked up.   The primate then realizes that this bone can do major damage.   When one community learns to use bones as weapons, then that group can take over the resources in a certain area and be selected for, which increases reproductive fitness.   This scenario could have happened but the truth is nobody knows exactly how and why things turned out the way they did.
Not just hominids use tools.   Wood-peckers, vultures and sea otters are among the other ... more

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