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roman Middle Ages

The history of the modern world derives from thousands of years of human history.  Embedded in its history are the many eras of man which have constructed our modern learning, art, beliefs, and order.  The middle ages, although represented as dark, backwards, and idle, were in fact a bridge linking the classical and modern world.  Medieval society may not have been in a sense glorious, but the era of itself was a prime foundation of the modern worlds newfound stability, a revival of the law and teachings from the classical era, a reinvestment and reform in the church, and a precursor to the golden age of art.
The government of the middle ages, as convoluted and variable as it was, ended up giving way to a powerful revival of monarchial control.  The feudal age had erupted due to the monarchs inability to rule and defend holistically its country during Norse and foreign invasions in the 700s to 1000s AD.  The emphasis shifted instead to local lords and nobles who drew the kings power for greater local stability.  This system flourished under an influenced and uneducated nation, however, the rise of the middle and working classes put a change to that.  Skilled merchants began to form guilds, universities and learning groups educated citizens, and a strengthening economy led the middle classes to object to feudal lords taxes and form their own charters of towns.  The educated middle class was now able to run their town fairly efficiently, which in turn, decreased influence of feudal lords and revived the power and influence of the monarchy.  The king could now depend on his educated townspeople to run their town.  AS revolutionary as the transition was to the feudal system, the practice proved to be efficient in the modern world.
The influence of universities and merchants, as seen, changed the kingdom.  Medieval universities were first formed in the 12th century AD after a need for educated public officials became evident.  Schools like the Law School at Bologna as well as medical schools gave towns lawyers, judges and capable local officials.  Other schools like the University of Paris taught scholars literature and theology.  The breed of Renaissance thinking was most likely developed in such places.  Scholars like Peter Abelard and Thomas Aquinas led an interest in the study of classical Greek and Roman philosophy.  This interest, along with challenged perspectives of the time eventually led to modern science.  Guilds, as afore-mentioned, were monopolistic practices over certain trades set by merchants.  They virtually eliminated competition and ensured quality.  Compared to Renaissance art, and Shakespearean and Elizabethan literature the precursor saw little.  However, works like Chaucers Canterbury Tales were popular, and the Gothic architectural style laid a foundation for many cathedrals and buildings.  It is still a dominant facade in todays world and was relished in modern Western Europe.  A powerful education system and study of art are necessary for societys to flourish and carry its roots into the next era; the effects of the middle ages therein are obvious.  The middle ages staged to recall and then reform the religious concepts of the day.  Since all aspects of society, including religious, are influenced by a changing society, the religion of the middle ages progressed accordingly.  The feudal age of religion may have witnessed a hierarchy in its system, but as the ages progressed, society, including kings and church scholars, argued for a reform in church government.  Likewise, as scholars found contradictions in religion, church practices were challenged and the very popes and bishops were unpopular.  The ideas and preaching of those like John Wycliffe and Jan Hus faced the church with a possible full-scale rebellion.  The church willingly compromised, however these were early warning signs of the reformations of the modern world.  The church, try as it might, could not barge a developing society and mind.  
The developments of the political, cultural, and religious societies of the middle ages influenced each other and were in turn influenced by the people.  The early middle ages and the whole age in general might be looked at as backward, however the changes it inspired need only be seen in the vibrant modern world that would follow.  Solely based on its ... more

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Roman Empire


The Roman Empire
The people were happy.  This is the underlying cause of the astounding length of time and space that the Roman Empire occupied most of the known western land.  Great rulers met their downfall when they put their own status in front of the well being of the people they govern.  When the citizens are left high and dry and not regarded as important to their society then this is when there is an overthrow of power and a new ruler comes into play.  Citizens had a place in politics, they have lots of entertainment, they had the best army in the world to protect them, and Rome was the place to live and would be that way for many years.
Many leaders come and go but it is the great ones that we remember, the ones that make people enjoy life.  The emperors that are not approved by the people are the ones that turn a new leaf of evil once they have a military victory.  The thrill of so much power gives them the urge to be the best in the world.  They move on and conquer other nations and forget about their own people.  Julius Caesar cared about his people and wanted to be the "ruler for the people," rather than the "ruler of the people."  When he gain power of Rome from the hands of Pompey there was no reign of terror, but a policy to restore economic and prosperity to Rome.  This period of time in Rome is known today as the golden age of Roman literacy and development.  The minds of the people are expanding.  Another example of the Roman citizens' happiness and prosperity comes during the rule of Caesar's grandson Octavian, better known to history as Augustus.
 
Once Augustus rises from the new triumvirate as the ruler of the empire, he introduces different types of social reform that appease the people and keep them on his side.  Augustus is a classical man and wanted to bring back the ancient moral to the citizens.  He reduced the size of the army and gave soldiers land and money.  He imports food and gives it away to the people.  Augustus transformed Rome from city of bricks to a city of marble by building temples and basilicas to represent his power as well as his love for the city that he takes care of.  At this time people could see that society was prospering and times were great due to a great leader.  
Shortly after the rule of Augustus the Colosseum is built under the rule of Vespasian and Titus, completed in 80A.D.  The colosseum creates entertainment among the Roman citizens, which keeps them occupied for hundreds of years.  The events at the colosseum captivate as well as surprise the citizens.  They have never before seen anything like this.  Everything from foreign beasts fighting criminals to naval battles on the flooded base of the giant structure.  The Roman people became obsessed with this social activity that brought the whole city together.  In the third century Emperor Caracalla extended Roman citizenship to every free person who lived in the within the empire.  This status symbol could allow one to travel to the far reaches of the land without being harmed by foreign persons.  These events in Roman history keep the people's moral high and their patriotism very strong, along with the protection of their superior army.
The Roman army was in charge of keeping the peace in the different nations taken over by Roman emperors.  They formed strongholds at the borders of the empire to secure the citizens and keep them safe.  Augustus' was a prime commander-in-chief.  His

army consisted of 150,000 soldiers and roughly 130,000 auxiliary officers who were all noncitizens.  After serving for twenty-four years they would receive citizenship.  This imperial army would only grow in size over the next few centuries.  Under Trajan the army had grown to about 400,000 soldiers.  The army's ability to move across the empire made romanizing of the foreign nations easy.  The army kept the empire secure from threatening outside nations and also brought the moral of the citizens to a high point.  They were safe from invasion and safe ... more

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