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Louis Leakey
Discovering the Secrets of Humankind's Past
Louis Leakey was born to be an archaeologist, for his childhood in Africa truly prepared him for the field life he would later lead. The son of missionaries Harry and Mary Leakey, Louis grew up in Kenya near Nairobi, among the Kikuyu African tribe who the elder Leakeys were trying to convert. Despite intervening periods in which the Leakeys moved back to England, Louis grew up practically as a Kikuyu tribe member, and at the age of eleven he not only built his own traditional hut in which to live but was also initiated as a member of the Kikuyu tribe. It was within this hut that the beginnings of Leakeys archaelogical aspirations took place. In one section he started a personal museum, collected all things naturalistic, from bird eggs to animal skulls. It was in 1916, at the age of fourteen, when Leakey first truly realized that he was meant for archaeology; after reading the account of stone-age men entitled Days Before History he was hooked. After reading about the arrowheads and axeheads created by these people, Louis began collecting and classifying as many pieces of obsidian flakes and tools as he could find. After confirmation by a prehistory expert that these were truly stone tools of ancient Africans, truly links to the past, Leakey knew that the rest of his life would be devoted towards discovering the secrets of the prehistoric ancestors of humankind.
Despite not being accustomed to the school structure back in England and the accompanying problems he had in public school, Leakey was accepted into Cambridge in 1922. However, blows to the head sustained during rugby games resulted in epilepsy and headaches for Leakey, and he had to leave school in 1923. This, however, was a blessing in disguise, for Leakey landed a job as an African expert on an archaeological mission to Tendaguru in what is now Tanzania. He was to accompany the archaeologist and dinosaur bone expert William E. Cutler. With his fluency in Swahili, Leakey soon orgainized an entire safari to the site. Working with and observing Cutler, Leakey learned more about the technical side of the search for and preservation of fossil bones than [he] could have gleaned from a far longer period of theoretical study. Many dinosaur bones were dug up although a complete skeleton was never found. After several months Leakey was forced to leave, leaving Cutler to continue. Back in England, Leakey wrote many articles and letters about the dig. Cutler, however, died in Africa a few months later, a victim of Blackwater fever.
Leakey returned to Cambridge and studied anthropology. From these studies and independent ones, Leakey developed the view that early man had originated in Africa, not in Asia as most scholars believed at the time. He became fascinated with the Olduvai Gorge site and the Homo sapiens skeleton discovered by German paleontologist Hans Reck. Great controversy surrounded Recks find because the age of the skeleton could not be proven. Further, Reck could not return to the site because, as he was German and Britain had won that region of Africa in World War I, he was not able to go there. Leakey was fascinated with the site and told Reck that they would one day go back. For the time being, this had to be put on hold. Finishing finals, Leakey graduated with excellent marks and recieved many grants for research in Africa. He was twenty-three, and he was about to lead his own expeditions.
Over the next few years Leakey dug at many sites, finding many stone tools, animal bones, and other artifacts. His search, however, was for proof of the use of a specific Chellean hand-axe style found in other parts of the world. This he found in 1929, and its discovery pushed back the age of the Great Rift Valley in Africa a great deal. Further, it provided critical evidence for a level of sophistication in East Africa equal to that of European cultures at the time. By this time Leakeys work at caught the attention of the archaeological community and he began to receive much acclaim. In November 1929 he returned to England with a ... more

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Subject: American History - The Regulators of North Carolina

The Regulators of North Carolina: Outraged Opressors

The history of colonial North Carolina is bombarded with frequent strife and
turmoil. The people of North Carolina, because of a lack in supervision from
the British monarchy, learned to possess an independent spirit. The colony remained
isolated from the rest of the country because of several geographical
conditions such as poor harbors, the abscence of navigable rivers, numerous
swamps, and bad road conditions. Due to these conditions, communities
throughout North Carolina became widely seperated. The colony was initially
set up by the Lords Proprietors, an English founding company that helped
finance early American exploration. When North Carolina was freed from

British proprietorship, the Granville family, descendants from the original

Lords Proprietors, con-tinued to hold their land rights. This area, which
became known as the "Granville District," was the scene of many disputes over
land grants, taxes, British support, and a great deal of lesser issues.

Settlers in the back country (Piedmont) felt particularly oppressed by the laws
drawn up by an assembly largely composed of eastern landowners. "Local"
officials in many counties, particularly in the western segment of the back
country were not local men at all, but friends of the royal governor, William

Tryon. These so-called "friends" often collected higher fees than authorized
by the law while obtaining tax money or divided a single service into many
services and charged fees for each. Lawyers who followed the judges around
the colony also fell into the same habit.

The citizens of Anson, Orange, and Granville counties were the first to make
themselves heard. In 1764, this band of citizens, referred to as the "mob," created a
number of local disturbances until Governor Arthur Dobbs passed a proclomation
forbidding the collection of illegal fees, the practice that the people complained of the
most. Their protests were calmed only temporarily. However, the efects of the new
law wore off soon enough and sheriffs and other county officers returned to
their old dishonest practices. Citizens complained largely in part because
money was so scarce; local trading was almost limited to barter. Often,
property was seized and resold, and citizens felt that their property was
being sold to a friend of an official for much less than its true value (1).

People among the Granville District were anxious to revolt and needed only a
leader to provide the spark that led to the fire of the War of Regulation. A
man named Hermon Husband became actively involved and was referred to as a
leader several times, despite the fact that he was often nothing more than an
agitator. Husband reprinted patriotic flyers with messages dealing with
taxation withour representation hoping that citizens would call for reform.

However, at no time during the Regulation was there an actual leader (2).

Orange County was an early center of Regulator activity. Colonel Edmund

Fanning, holder of numerous offices in the county including the prominent Clerk
of the Recorder's Court at Hillsborough, became a prime target along with

Royal Governor William Tryon, who took office in 1765. Tryon was hated
because he aimed to use taxes to build Tryon Palace in New Bern, a very
costly residence for himself, as well as the seat for the colony's
government. The Regulators, "who named themselves after a group of country
reformists in South Carolina (3)" shortly after Tryon's announcement to build
the palace, had no sympathy with the governor's desire for a fancy residence.

The War of Regulation was not limited to Orange County. Outbreaks of
violence during the collection of taxes in Anson County and several riots
throughout the Granville District were sure signs of what was to come.

A group of men, apparently enthusiastic over the success of the Sons of

Liberty in resisting the Stamp Act, called citizens together to determine
whether they were being treated justly or not. Edmund Fanning denounced this
meeting. Little was accomplished at the meeting, but this is where the

Regulators proclaimed themselves as a radical political group (4).

Minor oppositions continued to occur until the spring of 1768 when the sheriff of

Orange County announced he would be collecting taxes at certain areas of the
colony only, and if colonists did not pay at these particular locations a
charge would be incurred. This occured at about the same time Tryon gave
word about the construction of Tryon Palace. This was very inconvenient for
the sttlers for two reasons. The widely scattered population made it
difficult to arrive at these tax stations. Lack of money was also a concern.

Opposition ... more

research grants

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