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research biologist Quality Deer Management

There is no other big-game animal in North America like the white-tailed deer. The whitetails habitat is so widespread that it covers just about all of North America and parts of Central America.  The white-tailed deer is the most commonly hunted big game animal ever.  Before the settlers arrived, an estimated 30 million whitetails inhabited what is now the United States and Canada. But as settlers pursued them for food and market hunters slaughtered them with snares, traps, and set guns, the deer population underwent a disastrous decline. By 1900, only 400,000 whitetails remained.
What happened ever since 1900 has truly become a huge conservation success story.  Through a massive effort by sportsmen and wildlife managers, market hunting was outlawed, sport-hunting regulations were established, and habitat improvement programs began. Because of the efforts of these concerned people the whitetail population has risen to around 20 million.
The deer population has increased so much that in many areas, they suffer from chronic starvation. “Bucks only” laws passed years ago to help in re-establishing the dwindling deer herds now work against the deer by resulting in an overabundance of does. Even with the overabundance of does many hunters refuse to shoot a doe. They believe in the old saying, “It takes a doe to yield a buck.”  This is entirely true but it ignores the basic law of nature that any piece of land, and the food and cover in it, can support only so much game. If the excess game is not harvested by hunters or killed by predators, nature will take over and exterminate enough animals as needed or more through disease and starvation.  That’s why hunting is a much more humane means for a deer to die then to die of disease or starvation.
There is a lot more then can be done to help the whitetail deer reach the highest level of quality that is possible. One great naturalist and well-known deer researcher, Aldo Leopold, once said, “There is value in any experience that exercises those ethical restraints collectively called sportsmanship.”  That quote sums up why the concept of Quality Deer Management is becoming more and more popular in the hunting community today. All over the continent deer hunters are welcoming a philosophy of deer management unlike the traditional methods that they were used to in the past.  However, while some parts of North America are welcoming the idea with open arms, others seem to be dragging their feet.
It is impossible to discuss deer at all without talking about deer management, because there is there hardly a deer alive in America today that is not directly influenced by man.  We control the water the deer drinks, the food that it eats, and the land that it lives on, and we regulate the manner, sex, and amount of deer harvested. The problem lies in the way we manage the deer herd. The time has come to practice Quality Deer Management.
First of all some of you might be wondering exactly what is Quality Deer Management. Well the best way to describe it is by stating its goals. Brian Murphy, executive director of the Quality Deer Management Association, used this definition, “Quality Deer Management can be defined as a management philosophy/practice that unites landowners, hunters, and biologists in the common goal of producing biologically and socially balanced deer herds within existing environmental, social and legal constraints.”  There are three things needed in order for Quality Deer Management to work. You need quality deer habitat, quality deer hunting, and quality deer hunters. The primary goal of Quality Deer Management is to manage for populations and attributes of the deer before we came in and screwed it up.  What would be ideal is to have a 1-1 sex ratio and a good amount of mature bucks and does.
Quality Deer Management as we know it today is believed by many to be introduced by Texan Al Brothers. In 1975, Brothers and Murphy Ray Jr. co-authored the book Producing Quality Whitetails. In this book they wrote, “(This) information is for the benefit of all persons who believe in the wise use of our natural resources. Particularly, it is for those who have an uncommon ... more

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Have you ever wandered what it would be like to have a
clone, or what it would be like have a twin?  Well in a few
years you might be able to clone yourself.  Thats if they
legalize it in the US

I.What is cloning?

Cloning is the scientific process of combining the DNA
of one organism with the egg of another.  Creating a perfect
genetically matched lifeform.  In other words getting an
egg and fertilizing it.  Then putting it back in the a
surrogate mother.

II.Who cloned Dolly?

Scottish embryologist named Ian Wilmut  cloned a Finn
Dorset lamb named Dolly  from fully different adult mother
Wilmut was born in Hampton Lucey, England, attended the
University of Nottingham for his undergraduate work. In 1971
he received a Ph. D. in animal genetic engineering from
Darwin College of University of Cambridge. In 1974, he
joined the Animal Research Breeding Station in Scotland,
which is now known as the Roslyn Institute, and has
conducted research there ever since.
In 1973, he created the first calf ever produced from a
frozen embryo which he named Frosty.  In 1995 he created
Megan and Morag, two Welsh mountain sheep cloned from
differentiated embryo cells.
In July 5, 1996 he created a lamb called dolly, with
the help of Keith Campbell

III.How did they clone Dolly?

In 1990, Wilmut hired cell cycle biologist Keith
Campbell  to assist in his cloning studies. Their work
produced its first success with the birth of Megan and
Morag, two Welsh mountain sheep cloned from different embryo
cells. In their success, Wilmut and Campbell pioneered a new
technique of starving embryo cells before transferring their
nucleus to fertilized egg  cells. The technique synchronized
the cell cycles of both cells and their results led Wilmut
and Campbell to believe that any type of cell could be used
to produce a clone.
On July 5, 1996, Wilmut and Campbell used the same
process to produce the first clone from adult cells ,a Finn
Dorset lamb named Dolly ,after Dolly Parton. The
announcement left the scientific community shocked as well
as the public, and kicked off a large-scale debate on the
ethics and direction of cloning research.

IV.What other animals did they clone?

February 16, 1998 US Scientists cloned a Holstein cow
Using DNA from the cell of a 30 day old fetus, scientists in
the United States were able to clone a calf.
They named the Holstein calf, Gene.
July 5, 1998 a cow was cloned into two calves in Japan
Using cells from an adult cow, Japanese scientists cloned
the cow into two calves born Sunday, July 5, 1998.  
July 22, 1998 Mice are cloned. It was announced in the
press that Dr. Yanagimachi from the University of Hawaii and
colleagues had successfully cloned mice.
August 19, 1998 Scientists announce that a near-extinct
species has been cloned.  David Wells, led the effort at the
Ruakura Research Center in Hamilton, New Zealand to clone
the last cow a species that once inhabited Enderby Island in
the Aukland Islands.
A dog named Missy, is to be cloned. The Press announced
8/25/98 that a wealthy couple donated $2.3 million to Texas
A & M University to clone their dog. Dr. Mark Westhusin,
co-director of the Reproductive Sciences Laboratory, is one
of the scientists involved in the project. Lou Hawthorne,
president of Bio Arts and Research Corporation, a San
Francisco corporation, helped negotiate the deal. The donors
wish to remain anonymous.

V.How can cloning help us?

Cloning can help in many ways.  It can help us
cure many diseases like infertility, Downs syndrome.  It
can help us get rid world hunger.  With cloning technology,
instead of using materials foreign to the body such as
silicon, doctors will be able to manufacture bone, fat,
connective tissue, or cartilage that matches the patients
tissues exactly. It can make foods healthier for us.

VI.Why is cloning bad?

If a large percentage of an nation's cattle are
identical clones, a virus, such as mad cow disease, could
effect the entire population. The result could be
catastrophic food shortages in that nation.  Cloning may
cause people to settle for the best existing animals, not
allowing for improvement of the species. In this way,
cloning could potentially interfere with natural evolution.
Cloning is currently an expensive process. Cloning
requires large amounts of money and biological expertise.
Ian Wilmut and his associates required 277 tries before
producing Dolly. A new cloning technique has recently been
developed which is far more reliable. However, even this
technique has 2-3% success rate. ... more

research biologist


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