Psychopathology


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psychopathology Insomnia

Thesis Statement
In this research paper I will attempt to familiarize you, the reader, on the role of sleep, health risks of sleeping disorder that is most common, Insomnia. I will give you some of the aspects which cause Insomnia and how it can be treated.
We human beings spend one third of our lives in a mysterious, potentially dangerous and seemingly unproductive state of unconsciousness---and no one knows exactly why. Scientists have attempted to study the effects of sleep and its role on our existence but have yet to come up with an accurate reason why we need sleep. Yes, we do need sleep. All animals, be they mammal, amphibian, aquatic, etc., need some form of sleep in order to rejuvenate their body and/or mind. Without sleep our bodies tend to experience some type of mental or physical malfunctions. Some of us human beings can even become down right incapable of proper social function. In other words, cranky frustrated emotional nutcases. So, sleep does play an important role in our daily functions, and no matter what we must fit it into our lives/schedule.
Edisons light bulb can be considered one of the major technological curses of the modern age, says sleep researcher Harvey Moldofsky, chief psychiatrist at Toronto Western Hospital. Edison believed that his light bulb would liberate us from the night and in the process transform our lives. The fact that the light bulb served as a reliable, controlled was to, banish the night, did not act as perhaps Edison hoped it would. Yet, it helped banish our need for sleep. And with this a change in our sleeping patterns. This is one of the ultimate causes of sleep problems.
Insomnia is the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of one or more of the following: difficulty sleeping, waking up too early, unrefreshing sleep, waking frequently through the night. When one has Insomnia it is difficult to initiate and/or maintain sleep. Some believe that Insomnia is not a disorder, it is a symptom that often indicated other problems. Other diagnosis, hold that Insomnia is the most common of all sleep disorders and perhaps the most frequent health complaint after pain. Severe cases can disrupt social and occupational function and is associated with depression, fatigue, and anxiety.
There are different types of Insomnia which affect our sleep patterns in many different ways. Types of Insomnia are:
 Sleep Onset Insomnia (delayed sleep Phase Syndrome): a disorder in which the major sleep episode is delayed in relation to the desires clock time which one wishes to be awakened.
 Idiopathic Insomnia: A life long inability to obtain adequate sleep that is due to an abnormality of the neurological control of the sleep-wake system.
 Psychophysiological Insomnia: A disorder or somatized tension (conversion of anxiety into physical symptoms) and learned sleep - preventing associated with results in a complaint of Insomnia and associated decreased functioning during wakefulness.
 Childhood Insomnia (limit-setting Sleep Disorder): Primarily a childhood disorder that is characterized by the inadequate enforcement of bed times by a caretaker with resultant stalling or refusal to go to bed at the appropriate time.
 Food Allergy Insomnia: A disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep due to an allergic response to food allergens.
 Environmental Insomnia (Environmental Sleep disorder): A sleep disorder disturbance due to a disturbing environmental factor that causes a complaint of either Insomnia or excessive sleepiness.
 Transient Insomnia (Adjustment Sleep Disorder): Represents sleep disturbance temporally related to acute stress, conflict or environmental change causing emotional agitation.
 Periodic Insomnia (Non 24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome): Consists of a chronic steady pattern consisting of 1-2 hour daily delays in sleep onset and wake times in an individual living in society.
 Altitude Insomnia: An acute Insomnia usually accompanied by headaches, loss of appetite, and fatigue, that occurs following ascent to high altitudes.
 Hypnotic-Dependency Insomnia (Hypnotic Dependent Sleep Disorder): Characterized by Insomnia or excessive sleepiness that is associated with tolerance to or withdrawal from hypnotic medications.
 Stimulant Dependent Sleep Disorder: Characterized by a reduction of sleepiness or suppression of sleep by central stimulants and resultant alterations in wakefulness following drug abstinence.
 Alcohol Dependent Insomnia (Alcohol Dependent Sleep Disorder): Characterized by the sustained ingestion of sleep onset by the sustained ingestion ... more

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A Comaprison of Freud and Fromm

Sigmund Freud was born in Monrovia on May 6,1856.  He entered the University of Vienna in 1873 at the age of 17.  He finished his degree in 1881.  Freud died in England in 1939.  He was an active therapist, theorist and writer to the very end. ( Ewen 19-20)                                    
Erich Fromm was born four years after Freud in 1900 in Frankfurt, Germany.  Unlike Freud, Fromm had no medical training in his background.  He received his PHD from the University of Heidelberg and later studied at Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute.  Erich Fromm died March 16, 1980 in Switzerland. (Ewen 187)
            While Freud and Fromm were contemporaries and shared some basic beliefs, their approach to most issues varied greatly.  Freuds attitude was purely scientific.  Fromm desired to humanize things.
              Fromm accepted the importance of unconscious, biological drives, repression and defense mechanisms, but rejected Freuds theory of id, ego and superego.  Fromm did not believe in specific developmental stages.  He believed that the growing child slowly learns to distinguish between I and not I, through contact with the environment, notably those involving the parents.(Ewen 194)  Fromm contends that personality development continues into adulthood. He believes that if a child keeps up with the increasing feelings of isolation, that anxiety can be kept to a minimal and personality development proceeds normally.  Freuds well-known theory is that the personality is determined during the first five years of life.  He believes we proceed through a series of psychosexual stages: oral, anal, urethral, phallic, a latency period and genital. Freud contends that the genital stage is the goal of normal development and that it represents true maturity. ( Hansen 25-26)
Fromm warns against pathogenic behavior because it can damage the childs sense of reliance.  He believed healthy personality is illustrated by biophilia, love, creativity and reason. ( Ewen 195-196) These characteristics compromise the productive frame of orientation.  The nonproductive frames include narcissism, necrophilia, dependence, compulsive strivings for power or wealth and the mechanisms of escape.  Fromm had four other nonproductive orientations that he devoted a great deal of attention to.  These were receptive, exploitative, hoarding and marketing.  Three of these orientations can be loosely compared to Freuds oral-dependent, oral-sadistic and anal character without the sexual implications.
Freud and Fromm both believed that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious. ( Ewen 198) Fromm agreed with Freud that dreams could serve the purpose of wish fulfillment, that the days events set them off, and that a person may conceal truths in different ways.  While both men believed in dream symbols, Freud believed most dreams involved childhood sexual impulses and Fromm regarded many symbols as asexual.  Fromm believed that dreams could have obvious and undisguised meanings that did not have to involve childhood conflicts.
To understand Fromms approach to clinical diagnosis, his theory of character must first be understood.  His theory of character development was that humans are distinguished from other animals by a larger neocortex with fewer instincts.  Character shapes human instinct.  Human survival is not merely a matter of physical survival, humans are social animals who must relate to others, and they are spiritual animals who must infuse their lives with meaning in order to function.  Humans require a sense of hope to keep from turning off.  They also require caring adults in the early years to be teachers that teach them to control their fears and passions and live in harmony with others.  Religion both sacred and secular can give meaning to life and give a sense of identity and rootness.
Fromm accepted Freuds definition of mental health saying that it is the capacity for love and productive work. Fromm also agreed with Freud in saying that psychopathology represents a difference in degree, rather than in kind. Fromm states that besides pathogenic behaviors that neurosis is often caused by the culture in which one lives. He says that neurosis consists of a conflict between two opposing forces. Which is when our healthy innate drives toward self-realization and independence are blocked by parental or societal influences.  Freud states that neurosis invariably begins in infancy and childhood, however it may not become evident until much later in life. Some causes of neurosis is a lack of physical affection, ... more

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