Looking for essays on protection act of? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.
Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where
people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who
were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied
opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When
these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of
people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise
have had. These gains have led to very real changes. Affirmative action programs
have not eliminated racism, nor have they always been implemented without
problems. However, there would be no struggle to roll back the gains achieved if
affirmative action policies were ineffective. The implementation of affirmative
action was America's first honest attempt at solving a problem, it had
previously chosen to ignore. In a variety of areas, from the quality of health
care to the rate of employment, blacks still remain far behind whites. Their
representation in the more prestigious professions is still almost
insignificant. Comparable imbalances exist for other racial and ethnic
minorities as well as for women. Yet, to truly understand the importance of
affirmative action, one must look at America's past discrimination to see why,
at this point in history, we must become more "color conscious".
History Of Discrimination In America: Events Leading To Affirmative Action. The
Declaration of Independence asserts that "all men are created equal."
Yet America is scarred by a long history of legally imposed inequality. Snatched
from their native land, transported thousands of miles-in a nightmare of disease
and death-and sold into slavery, blacks in America were reduced to the legal
status of farm animals. A Supreme Court opinion, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857),
made this official by classifying slaves as a species of "private
property." Even after slavery was abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment in
1865, American blacks, other minorities, and women continued to be deprived of
some of the most elementary right of citizenship. During the Reconstruction,
after the end of the Civil War, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868,
making blacks citizens and promised them the "equal protection of the
laws." In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment was passed, which gave blacks the
right to vote. Congress also passed a number of civil rights laws barring
discrimination against blacks in hotels, theaters, and other places. However,
the South reacted by passing the "Black Codes, " which severely
limited the rights of the newly freed slaves, preventing them in most states
from testifying in courts against whites, limiting their opportunities to find
work, and generally assigning them to the status of second or third class
citizen. White vigilante groups like the Klu Klux Klan began to appear, by
murdering and terrorizing blacks who tried to exercise their new rights.
"Legal" ways were also found for circumventing the new laws; these
included "grandfather clauses", poll taxes, white only primary
elections, and constant social discrimination against and intimidation of
blacks, who were excluded form education and from any job except the most
menial. In 1883, the Supreme Court declared a key civil rights statute, one that
prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, unconstitutional. And in
1896, Plessy v. Ferguson (163 U.S. 537 ), the Court declared that the
state of Louisiana had the right to segregate their races in every public
facility. Thus began the heyday of "Jim Crow" legislation. In Justice
John Marshall Harlan's lone dissent, he realized it was a mockery. He wrote,
" We boast of the freedom enjoyed by our peoples above all other peoples.
But it is difficult to reconcile that boast with a state of the law which,
practically, puts a brand of servitude and degregation upon a large class of our
fellow citizens, our equals before the law. This thin disguise of 'equal'
accommodations for passengers in railroad coaches will not mislead anyone, or
atone for the wrong this day done." Not until sixty years later, in Brown
v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (347 U.S. 483 ), was Plessy
overturned. Chief Justice earl Warren declared the unanimous opinion of the
court by saying: "We cannot turn the clock back to 1868, when the Amendment
was adopted, or even to 1896, when Plessy v. Ferguson was written." In
today's world, "separate educational facilities are inherently
unequal." This decision sparked racial tensions all across America. in
1957, President Eisenhower had to call federal troops into Little Rock,
Arkansas, after the state's governor forcibly barred black children from
entering white schools. In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined, for not
moving to the back of a public bus, ... more
Find essay on Protection Act Of
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs, a.k.a venereal diseases, infectious diseases passed from one person to another during sexual contact. STDs are the most common infections known. More than 12 million people in the United States, including 3 million teenagers, are infected with STDs every year. The United States has the highest STD rate in the world about one in ten Americans will contract an STD during his or her lifetime. People who do not know they are infected risk infecting their sexual partners and, in some cases, their unborn children. If left untreated, these diseases may cause pain or may destroy a woman's ability to have children. Some STDs can be cured with a single dose of antibiotics, but AIDS cannot be cured. Those most at risk for contracting STDs are people who have unprotected sexwithout using a condom, people who have multiple partners, and people whose sex partners are drug users who share needles. Statics show that Americans between the ages of 16 and 24 are most likely of catching STDs than older adults, because younger people usually have multiple sexual partners than an older person in a long-term relationship. Teenagers may be embarrassed to tell their sexual partners they are infected Teenagers may also be embarrassed or unable to seek medical attention for STDs. This means that they only more likely to pass the disease to other young people and have a greater risk of suffering the long-term consequences of untreated STDs. STDs are transmitted by infectious bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and single-celled organisms called protozoa that live in warm, moist parts of the body, like the genital area, mouth, and throat. Most STDs are spread while having sex, but oral sex can also spread disease. Some STDs are passed from a mother to her child while pregnant, when the disease enters the baby's bloodstream, during childbirth as the baby passes through the birth canal, or after birth, when the baby drinks infected breast milk. AIDS can be transmitted by blood contact such as open wounds, between people who share infected needles or received through an injection of infected blood. Some people believe that STDs can be transmitted through shaking hands or other casual contact, or through contact with inanimate objects such as clothing or toilet seats, but they cant. Chlamydeous, is from trachoma is bacterium, is the most commonly transmitted STD in the United States. About 500,000 chlamydia infections are reported each year. Since chlamydia may not produce noticeable symptoms, it usually goes untreated. People who do not know they are infected may not seek medical attention and may continue to have sex, not knowing they're spreading the disease. When symptoms do develop, men may experience painful or burning urination or a discharge from the penis. Women may experience burning urination, vaginal secretion, or mild lower abdominal pain. If left untreated, chlamydia damages reproductive tissue, causing inflammation of the urethra in men and maybe in women. Chlamydia infections are diagnosed by testing penile and vaginal discharge. Gonorrhea, is made by neisseria gonorrhea, infects the membranes in certain genital organs. About 325,000 gonorrhea infections are reported each year in the United States. Like chlamydia, gonorrhea is often symptomless, and men are more likely to develop symptoms than women are. Symptoms may be similar to those of chlamydia and include burning urination and penile or vaginal discharge. Babies born to mothers with gonorrhea are at risk of infection during childbirth; such infections can cause eye which can make the baby blind. Gonorrhea is treatable with several antibiotics. A potentially life-threatening STD is syphilis, which comes from Treponema palladiums. Experts say there are about 100,000 new cases of syphilis in the United States each year. The first part of syphilis is a genital sore, called a chancre comes after infection and then goes away. If it is not treated, the infection can grow over years, affecting the vertebrae, brain, and heart, which makes you coordination skills go down, meningitis, and produces strokes. Syphilis is easily treated with penicillin. Syphilis cases have gone down since 1982. Syphilis cases are ten times more common in the southern United States than in other parts of the country. Syphilis can be hard on ... more
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P: How the segregation & assimilation policies impact
How the segregation & assimilation policies impacted on Aboriginal fam 2. Compare and contrast the segregation and assimilation policies in relation to the impact they had on the Aboriginal family life. Aboriginal family life has been disrupted and forcibly changed over the last two hundred years, as a result of the many segregation and assimilation policies introduced by Australian governments. Often a combination of the two was employed. The policy of segregation has impacted upon Aboriginal f...
R: Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise hav...
STD'd Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs, a.k.a venereal diseases, infectious diseases passed from one person to another during sexual contact. STDs are the most common infections known. More than 12 million people in the United States, including 3 million teenagers, are infected with STDs every year. The United States has the highest STD rate in the world about one in ten Americans will contract an STD during his or her lifetime. People who do not know they are inf...
T: Causes of world war 2
Causes of world war 2 Out of all the wars that the world has gone through, none has been more devastating as world war II. But what caused this war? Well, world war II had six major causes: anger over the Versailles Treaty, the failure of peace efforts after world war I, the rise of Fascism, the goals of Hitler, the isolationism by America and Britain, and the re-armament of Europe. This paper will go over each of these causes individually and then draw some conclusions about world war II. The f...
E: Late anglo-saxon period kings
Late anglo-saxon period kings Late Anglo-Saxon Period Kings of Wessex By the time Edward the Martyr took the throne in 975, Christianity was widespread throughout England and the rest of Britain. Edward was born in 963, and was just entering his teenage years when his father, Edgar, died. He made a claim to the throne, as the first son of the king. His half-brother Aethelred, son of the third wife, made another claim (qtd in Britannia 1). Edward was murdered when he rode to visit Aethelred at Co...
C: The Federal Bureau of Investigation is one of the
Fbi The Federal Bureau of Investigation is one of the most crucial elements of law enforcement and combating of criminal activity in the United States. It works both in domestic crime, and lawlessness abroad, as well. Without it, our country wouldnt be nearly as safe as we consider it to be. The FBI did not just start out as the juggernaut of crime fighting that is today, however. It began very humbly not that long ago, at the turn of the 20th century, when the need arose for a higher power i...
Dragons Dragons Introduction: The dragon, long considered a mythical creature, which indeed once existed but is now extinct. The last one having died in captivity in 1911, was part of a traveling zoo where it was falsely labeled as a rare winged garter snake. Although scientists have so longly disputed the existence of dragons because their attributes, anatomy and abilities appeared scientifically improbable. The key word being here: improbable and not impossible. Few fossils of dragons have e...
I: Women Rights
Women Rights If you ask a young girl what she wants to be when she grows up, she may tell you she wants to be a doctor, lawyer, or even a teacher. That is what any child would percieve their future to become, just like their parents. But what that little girl is unaware of, is that if she had lived a little over 150 years ago, her future dreams would be quite different. Women living a life of religious freedom, having a voice in government, and attending schools is normal in our everyday lives a...
O: Aborigional law
Aborigional law Aboriginal customary law and European law have been at odds since the first years of the European invasion, but only recently has the clash come into the open. Stuart MacMillan of the Aboriginal Resource and Development Services in the Northern Territory says that remote Aboriginal communities there and in Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland see no reason why they should submit to whitefella law . The governments of the Northern Territory and Western Australia are i...
Pesticides Pesticides: What are they? Pesticides are chemicals that are used to destroy pests. In the agricultural industry, pesticides are classified into two categories, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic. A carcinogenic pesticide is a substance or agent producing or inciting cancer. Conversely, a non-carcinogenic pesticide is substance that does not produce or incite cancer. Most agricultural pesticides were registered in the 1950s, with no standard regulations. The most considerable standa...
Accidents Aircraft Investigation Each mishap has their own characteristics and there is no substitute for good old-fashioned common sense and initiative. Each wrecked aircraft has its own story to tell if properly investigated. However Air Force guidelines are quick to point out that investigators in their eagerness seek out the causes, often ignore safe investigation practices and common safety precautions. Air Force Investigators are maybe in even more difficult position due to the hazards th...
Abortion Abortion Life or Death Who Chooses? In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for huma...
C: Baron de Montesquieu
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T: Public School Licensing
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: Right to Unite
Right to Unite Sam* and Alex* have been together for two years. Recently, they decided that they would like to buy a house together. Unfortunately, they are homosexual and are having trouble attaining a loan.. If they were married, as they one day hope to be, there would be no problem getting a home loan . Marriage is not an option for Sam and Alex in the state where they live. Because they are gay, they are unable to legalize their relationship in 48 of the 50 states. The issue of gay marriage ...
O: History 111
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F: anti same sex-marriages
anti same sex-marriages Same-Sex Marriages There are many important issues discussed in public policy today. One of these issues is homosexual marriage. This is an important issue because it deals with a relatively large minority of the United States. This issue is put into many different lights. Those of morals, family values and religion; and those of equality, constitutionality, and right to privacy. A battle has been in progress for years over whether equal rights and equal protection agains...
Euthanisia In recent years, Euthanasia has become a very heated debate. It is a Greek word that means easy death but the controversy surrounding it is just the opposite. Whether the issue is refusing prolonged life mechanically, assisting suicide, or active euthanasia, we eventually confront our socity's fears toward death itself. Above others, our culture breeds fear and dread of aging and dying. It is not easy for most of the western world to see death as an inevitable part of life. However,...
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Drug Testin In The Workplace
Drug Testin In The Workplace Drug testing in the United States began with the explosive use of illegal drugs, in order to curb drug abuse. This began during the Vietnam War with drug use at a climax. In general, Drug testing is a way to detect illegal drug use and deter it, usually by Urinalysis. Drug testing in the United States violates a citizens right to unreasonable search and seizures along with jeopardizing ones freedom. Drug testing is not only an unreliable invasion of a persons pri...
Alexander The Great
Alexander The Great Introduction Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth until 341 B.C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C. In 336 B.C. Philip II, his father, was assassinated, thus making Alexander king. Alexander became a...
Stowaways have been a problem to shipowners for ab
Stowaways have been a problem to shipowners for about as long as there have been ships in the sea. In the early days of sailing ships and looser maritime legislation, this was a relatively minor problem. This probably had to due with the fact that the ships were smaller in comparison to todays standards, and were comparatively heavily crewed. Thus the chances for a stowaway to get on board and go undiscovered for any length of time were fairly small. Also in that age, the concept of human righ...
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To pray or not to Pray The trend of taking God and moral teaching out of schools is a diabolical scheme, declared the Reverend Billy Graham soon after the Engel versus Vitale and Schempp verdict (Haas 30). The debate over the separation of church and state had been swirling through courtrooms for years. The controversy over school prayer in the Engel versus Vitale case started over a prayer recited in the New York public school system, known as the Regents Prayer. A group of three parents fou...
Roots of AntiSemitism
Roots of AntiSemitism After learning about the Holocaust, Ive asked myself many times how this could have happened. Why would anyone believe its acceptable to massacre an entire people? This is my reasoning for writing my paper on how Christian theology influenced anti-Semitism. Much of the Holocaust appears to have its beginning with Christian theology. I will begin my paper with the early writings of Christians and continue chronologically until after World War II. The Apostle Paul was one ...
Child Pornography On Internet
Child Pornography On Internet In this new age of Information, the Internet has made all types of information readily available. Some of this information can be very useful, some can be malicious. Child pornography, also known as Paedophilia is one of these problems. Any one person can find child pornography on the internet with just a few clicks of the mouse using any search engine. Despite webmaster\'s and law enforcement officials\' efforts to control child pornography and shut down illegal si...