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proposition 209 Affirmative Action

In 1997, three students were denied admission into the University of Michigan. Each of them, in turn, sued the school, charging them with discrimination. In one of the cases, a student was denied admission into Michigan's law school. Chicago Sun-Times writers Dave Newbart and Kate Grossman reported that last Monday, June 23, 2003, in a 5-4 majority ruling, swing vote Justice Sandra Day O'Connor judged for the school maintaining their right to consider the race of their applicants. In a second decision, the court ruled that they supported the University's use of race in their admissions policy, but use of a point system was unconstitutional under the fourteenth amendment (Equal Protection Clause). Why then was the student still dissatisfied with the ruling? She was suing the school for reverse discrimination stemming from the University of Michigan's use of affirmative action towards their applicants. The student was white.
     The lawsuit sent shockwaves across the nation. Though the case centered on college admission practices, affirmative action plays a role in many everyday matters, especially towards procedures regarding employment. Before delving into discourse and opinions, the background and history of affirmative action should be discussed.
     According to writer Stephen Cahn, affirmative action's origins stem from an executive order that John F. Kennedy wrote in regards to the hiring practices of employers. Cahn writes that the President's Committee on Equal Opportunity Employment stated federal contractors "...will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or national origin. The Contractor will take affirmative action, to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin." The principle of this order from President Kennedy was more developed with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which in part stated that "No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." About one year later, President Lyndon B. Johnson defined the concept of affirmative action emphasizing that civil rights laws alone were not enough to resolve discrimination. Just months later, President Johnson issued an order to enforce affirmative action toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment. Employers must take specific measures to ensure equality in hiring and must document these efforts. Two years later, the order was amended to cover discrimination based on gender. In 1969, President Richard Nixon issued an order that further defined the "goals" of affirmative action. C. Price Jones of the Michigan Daily reported that the order stated it "...would not impose quotas, but would require federal contractors to show 'affirmative action' to meet the goals of increasing minority employment," minority referring specifically to "Negroes, American Indians, Orientals, and Spanish Surnamed Americans" (Cahn) .
     Nine years later, a landmark case hit the nation. In the case of the University of California v. Bakke, a white student, Allen Bakke, sued the university for reverse discrimination under the Fourteenth Amendment. The court ruled that race was a legitimate factor in school admissions, but quotas were unconstitutional. Where as the subject of strict quotas was struck down, just two years later, the court ruled that in the case of Fullilove v. Klutznick, certain quotas "...were not unconstitutional and that 15 percent of public works funds be set aside for minority contractors" (Jones) . In the 1996 case of Hopwood v. University of Texas Law School, the court ruled that the Bakke decision was invalid and that the school's affirmative action admissions policy was suspended. One more landmark in the history of affirmative action is the enactment of Proposition 209 in the state of California. It bans all forms of affirmative action, which in turn banned all forms of discrimination and preferential treatment (Jones). Thus bringing us back to last Monday's ruling that affirmative action be upheld by university admissions.
     The history, as a whole, of affirmative action beings up a very heated debate about the morals of affirmative action. It has been both praised and denounced by minority leaders and "WASPs" (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) alike. Affirmative action is only ... more

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Euthanasia

A considerable size of society is in favor of Euthanasia
mostly because they feel that as a democratic country, we as free
individuals, have the right to decide for ourselves whether or not it
is our right to determine when to terminate someone's life. The
stronger and more widely held opinion is against Euthanasia primarily
because society feels that it is god's task to determine when one of
his creations time has come, and we as human beings are in no position
to behave as god and end someone's life. When humans take it upon
themselves to shorten their lives or to have others to do it for them
by withdrawing life-sustaining apparatus, they play god. They usurp
the divine function, and interfere with the divine plan.
Euthanasia is the practice of painlessly putting to death
persons who have incurable, painful, or distressing diseases or
handicaps. It come from the Greek words for 'good' and 'death', and is
commonly called mercy killing. Voluntary euthanasia may occur when
incurably ill persons ask their physician, friend or relative, to put
them to death. The patients or their relatives may ask a doctor to
withhold treatment and let them die. Many critics of the medical
profession contend that too often doctors play god on operating tables
and in recovery rooms. They argue that no doctor should be allowed to
decide who lives and who dies.
The issue of euthanasia is having a tremendous impact on
medicine in the United States today. It was only in the nineteenth
century that the word came to be used in the sense of speeding up the
process of dying and the destruction of so-called useless lives. Today
it is defined as the deliberate ending of life of a person suffering
from an incurable disease. A distinction is made between positive, or
active, and negative, or passive, euthanasia. Positive euthanasia is
the deliberate ending of life; an action taken to cause death in a
person. Negative euthanasia is defined as the withholding of life
preserving procedures and treatments that would prolong the life of
one who is incurably and terminally ill and couldn't survive without
them. The word euthanasia becomes a respectable part of our vocabulary
in a subtle way, via the phrase ' death with dignity'.
Tolerance of euthanasia is not limited to our own country. A
court case in South Africa, s. v. Hatmann (1975), illustrates this
quite well. A medical practitioner, seeing his eighty-seven year old
father suffering from terminal cancer of the prostate, injected an
overdose of Morphine and Thiopental, causing his father's death within
seconds. The court charged the practitioner as guilty of murder
because 'the law is clear that it nonetheless constitutes the crime of
murder, even if all that an accused had done is to hasten the death of
a human being who was due to die in any event'. In spite of this
charge, the court simply imposed a nominal sentence; that is,
imprisonment until the rising of the court. (Friedman 246)
Once any group of human beings is considered unworthy of
living, what is to stop our society from extending this cruelty to
other groups? If the mongoloid is to be deprived of his right to life,
what of the blind and deaf? and What about of the cripple, the
retarded, and the senile?
Courts and moral philosophers alike have long accepted the
proposition that people have a right to refuse medical treatment they
find painful or difficult to bear, even if that refusal means certain
death. But an appellate court in California has gone one controversial
step further. (Walter 176)
It ruled that Elizabeth Bouvia, a cerebral palsy victim, had
an absolute right to refuse a life-sustaining feeding tube as part of
her privacy rights under the US and California constitutions. This was
the nation's most sweeping decision in perhaps the most controversial
realm of the rights explosion: the right to die...
As individuals and as a society, we have the positive
obligation to protect life. The second precept is that we have the
negative obligation not to destroy or injure human life directly,
especially the life of the innocent and invulnerable. It has been
reasoned that the protection of innocent life- and therefore,
opposition to abortion, murder, suicide, and euthanasia- ... more

proposition 209

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  • P: Affirmative Action in Educatio P: Affirmative Action in Educatio Affirmative Action in Educatio By: Radhika Inaganti E-mail: rina82@chickmail.com The policy of affirmative action in education will no longer be needed in the near future. In the past, however, legislators determined that in order to prevent racial discrimination affirmative action would be needed. Recent demographic studies indicate that the Caucasian race will steadily decrease as the present populations of minorities increase. Factors such as fewer white births, an influx of immigrants, and a...
  • R: Affirmative Action R: Affirmative Action Affirmative Action In 1997, three students were denied admission into the University of Michigan. Each of them, in turn, sued the school, charging them with discrimination. In one of the cases, a student was denied admission into Michigan\'s law school. Chicago Sun-Times writers Dave Newbart and Kate Grossman reported that last Monday, June 23, 2003, in a 5-4 majority ruling, swing vote Justice Sandra Day O\'Connor judged for the school maintaining their right to consider the race of their appli...
  • O: Euthanasia O: Euthanasia Euthanasia A considerable size of society is in favor of Euthanasia mostly because they feel that as a democratic country, we as free individuals, have the right to decide for ourselves whether or not it is our right to determine when to terminate someone\'s life. The stronger and more widely held opinion is against Euthanasia primarily because society feels that it is god\'s task to determine when one of his creations time has come, and we as human beings are in no position to behave as god and...
  • P: The History of Mexican Immigration P: The History of Mexican Immigration The History of Mexican Immigration The History of Mexican Immigration to the United States. Over the passed one and a half centuries, since the Treaty of Hidalgo in 1848 gave the United States most lands north of the Rio Grande, the 1200 mile United States-Mexican border has been a very active one. Mexicans have emigrated from their homeland in droves over these years in three major phases preceded by a small phase. The Mexicans have made this exodus in search of a better life than their homelan...
  • O: Racial Profiling O: Racial Profiling Racial Profiling The Race Against Racial Profiling The great era of civil rights started in the 1960s, with Martin Luther King, Jr.s stirring I have a Dream speech at the historic march on Washington in August of 1963. At the same time Birmingham Police Commissioner Bull Connor used powerful fire hoses and vicious police attack dogs against nonviolent black civil rights activists. Although these years proved to be the highlight and downfall of civil rights in America, even with the 1964 Civ...
  • S: Reverse Discrimination S: Reverse Discrimination Reverse Discrimination THE REPRECUSSIONS OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION Discrimination in employment has been an issue that has plagued our society throughout history. At the turn of this century it was acceptable to advertise job openings and specifically state that people of a certain race, color, religion, gender, or national origin need not apply. A lot has changed over the last 100 years. The proverbial pendulum has swung in the direction of federal protection of certain people, but the problem ...
  • I: Affermative Action I: Affermative Action Affermative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action efforts were started in 1964 to end the long history of overlooking qualified people of color and women from higher education. Affirmative Action sets standards for a business or office of admissions, so that a white man does not have the upper-hand over an equally or greater educated minority. The initial way the government tried to justify Affirmative Action was to develop a human resource approach: first identifying the problem, which i...
  • T: Proposition 227: The Crisis Of Democracy And The I T: Proposition 227: The Crisis Of Democracy And The I Proposition 227: The Crisis Of Democracy And The Indoctrination Of Our Children Proposition 227: The Crisis of Democracy And the Indoctrination Of our Children By H. Michael Moya English 2 Professor Deena Hutchinson November 29th, 1999 Literacy for cultural reproduction uses institutional mechanisms to undermine independent thought, a prerequisite for the Orwellian manufacture of consent or engineering of consent. In this light, schools are seen as the ideological institutions designed to preven...
  • I: Affirmative Action I: Affirmative Action Affirmative Action The state shall not discriminate, or grant preferential treatment to any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting. The previous statement is the unedited text of the operative part of Proposition 209, the California Civil Rights Initiative (CCRI), that passed November fifth by a percentage of 54 to 46. Though the initiative does not actually mention affir...
  • O: Affermative Action O: Affermative Action Affermative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action efforts were started in 1964 to end the long history of overlooking qualified people of color and women from higher education. Affirmative Action sets standards for a business or office of admissions, so that a white man does not have the upper-hand over an equally or greater educated minority. The initial way the government tried to justify Affirmative Action was to develop a human resource approach: first identifying the problem, which i...
  • N: Prop 209 N: Prop 209 Prop 209 Introduction It has been said that Californias 1996 Proposition 209 is misleading. It can also be said that it is discriminating to women and minorities. Proposition 209 was passed on November, 5 1996 but has not taken effect since the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional in February 1997. Body As I stated before, Proposition 209 was passed in 1996 by California voters. It was passed by a margin of 56% to 46% but was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1997 and ha...
  •  : Retail Sector in Turkey: Main Turkish Players : Retail Sector in Turkey: Main Turkish Players Retail Sector in Turkey: Main Turkish Players INDEX 1 TURKISH RETAIL SECTOR 1 1.1 Historical Perspective 1 1.2 Trade Styles in Turkey 5 1.2.1 Traditional Trade 5 1.2.2 Modern Trade 5 1.3 Market Structure 7 1.4 Distribution Channels 8 1.5 Competition 8 1.6 Organized Food Retail Sector 9 2 MAIN PLAYERS 10 2.1 Migros T.A.B. 10 2.1.1 History of Migros T.A.B. 11 2.1.2 Objective and Mission of Migros T.A.B. 13 2.1.3 Internal Environment 13 2.1.4 SWOT Analysis 17 2.2 Gima T.A.B. 18 2.2.1 History of Gim...
  • 2: Affirmative Action 2: Affirmative Action Affirmative Action AFFIRMATIVE ACTION What is affirmative action? This is a question that has plagued our nation since the 1960\'s. The term itself was coined during this decade. The problem has actually existed since the founding of our country. And the issue of discrimination has been around for much longer than that. Since slavery in the 19th century was addressed, we have been dealing with the injustices of American citizens and working to right all the wrongs done to minorities. The best wa...
  • 0: Fsadj 0: Fsadj fsadj INTRODUCTION Considering the subject of affirmative action the following questions frequently are raised: Is there a clear understanding of affirmative action roles/goals? What are the pros/cons of these programs? What are the loop holes in the system? Does seniority play a role in affirmative action? Addressing these key questions may help us all in our daily routine, as administrators and/or potential administrator in the public/private sector. Affirmative action programs throughout th...
  • 9: Euthanasia Term Paper 9: Euthanasia Term Paper Euthanasia Term Paper A considerable size of society is in favor of Euthanasia mostly because they feel that as a democratic country, we as free individuals, have the right to decide for ourselves whether or not it is our right to determine when to terminate someone\'s life. The stronger and more widely held opinion is against Euthanasia primarily because society feels that it is god\'s task to determine when one of his creations time has come, and we as human beings are in no position to behave...
  • Affermative Action Affermative Action Affermative Action Considering the subject of affirmative action the following questions frequently are raised: Is there a clear understanding of affirmative action roles/goals? What are the pros/cons of these programs? What are the loop holes in the system? Does seniority play a role in affirmative action? Addressing these key questions may help us all in our daily routine, as administrators and/or potential administrator in the public/private sector. Affirmative action programs throughout the ...
  • Summary Summary summary In this chapter, I will discuss some of the most important affirmative action court cases. along with each case, a summary will be provided of whether each case helped or hurt African American efforts toward economic, social, and economic equality. Allan Bakke had been an honor student in college and, later, a space-agency engineer before he decided, at age 32, to become a medical doctor. He applied twice for entry to the medical school at the University of California at Davis; the schoo...
  • Racial Profiling Racial Profiling Racial Profiling The great era of civil rights started in the 1960s, with Martin Luther King, Jr.s stirring I have a Dream speech at the historic march on Washington in August of 1963. At the same time Birmingham Police Commissioner Bull Connor used powerful fire hoses and vicious police attack dogs against nonviolent black civil rights activists. Although these years proved to be the highlight and downfall of civil rights in America, even with the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting ...
  • Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action AFFIRMATIVE ACTION A NECESSARY POLICY TO PREVENT DISCRIMINATION AND INEQUITIES OR A DISCRIMINATIVE AND INEQUITABLE POLCY INTRODUCTION Historically, there have been arguments about what Affirmative Action (AA) really is. The basis of the argument for the most part, debates the goal(s) of AA. Is the goal of AA to erase past inequities for the disabled, minorities and/or women without protest? Or is Affirmative Action a culture or spirit that rewards diversity and differences? Ba...
  • Affirmitive Action In The College Admissions Proce Affirmitive Action In The College Admissions Proce Affirmitive Action In The College Admissions Process Every year millions of high school seniors apply to colleges and universities across the country. Some get in, some don\'t. These schools have strict policies on the criteria for the acceptance of such students. The criteria involve many aspects of a student\'s prior academic career, such as their academic standing, extra curricular activities and work ethic. These are criteria that put everyone on the same level because everyone has the abili...
  • Affermative Action Affermative Action Word Count: 1318 Affirmative Action Affirmative Action efforts were started in 1964 to end the long history of overlooking qualified people of color and women from higher education. Affirmative Action sets standards for a business or office of admissions, so that a white man does not have the upper-hand over an equally or greater educated minority. The initial way the government tried to justify Affirmative Action was to develop a human resource approach: first identifying the problem, which is ...
  • Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Considering the subject of affirmative action the following questions frequently are raised: Is there a clear understanding of affirmative action roles/goals? What are the pros/cons of these programs? What are the loop holes in the system? Does seniority play a role in affirmative action? Addressing these key questions may help us all in our daily routine, as administrators and/or potential administrator in the public/private sector. Affirmative action programs throughout th...
  • Affermative Action Affermative Action Affermative Action By: Elissa Thomas E-mail: elissa@usais.net Affirmative Action Affirmative Action efforts were started in 1964 to end the long history of overlooking qualified people of color and women from higher education. Affirmative Action sets standards for a business or office of admissions, so that a white man does not have the upper-hand over an equally or greater educated minority. The initial way the government tried to justify Affirmative Action was to develop a human resource appro...
  • Affirmatvie Action Affirmatvie Action Affirmatvie Action The History of Diversity in America Known as the Melting Pot, America is a country with a more diverse population than any other. But America also has a long, painful past of discrimination that has been based on sex, race, color, disability, religion, sexual orientation and various other characteristics that stray from the average white American citizen. Through the years, government has played a major role in trying to correct the past wrongs due to discrimination by ena...
  • Affirmative Action: Public Opinion Vs. Policy Affirmative Action: Public Opinion Vs. Policy Affirmative Action: Public Opinion Vs. Policy Affirmative Action: Public OPinion vs. Policy When Justin Ketcham, a white college student from the suburbs, thinks about affirmative action, he thinks about what happened when he sent out letters seeking scholarships so he could attend Stanford University after being accepted during his senior year of high school.The organizations that wrote back told him their money was reserved for women or minorities. To Americans like Ketcham, it\'s a matter of ...