Progressive Disorder


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progressive disorder Alcoholism

What is Alcoholism?

The definition of alcoholism can be described as a chronic illness, which is marked by uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or occupational responsibilities.  This dependence on alcohol has only been diagnosed as a medical disorder recently in the medical field.  Like many other diseases, it has a predictable course and is influenced environmentally and sometimes genetically.  The disease can also be called progressive and fatal which means that the disease can persist over a long period of time, bodily changes progress as the drinking continues and can cause premature death through overdose, suicide, motor vehicle crashes and complications of the brain, liver, heart, and other organs.  Alcoholism can be detected by four basic symptoms, they are tolerance which is the increasing need to drink excessive amounts to feel its affects, also impaired control which is the problem of not being able to stop oneself from drinking at any given time.  Craving is another symptom characterized by a strong compulsion to drink, and the last one is physical dependence which shows withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, sweating, nausea or shakiness.  Some other common minor symptoms would be solitary drinking, making excuses to drink, episodes of violence while under the influence, unexplained mood swings, neglect of physical appearance, and hostility when confronted about drinking.  Also, one can have what is called preoccupation of alcohol which means excessive focused attention given to the drug, its effects and its use.
Causes of Alcoholism
There is no definite cause of alcoholism, however, many factors can play a role in the development of the disorder. In a family with an alcoholic parent, a child is more likely to become an alcoholic than a child without an alcoholic parent.  Alcoholism can be inherited genetically from parent to child.  An alcoholic disorder can occur if one or both parents drank alcohol at the time of conception or the mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.  A women drinking during pregnancy can also cause several other complications besides a drinking disorder.  In a study done it concluded that if one person in a family was an alcoholic that nine out of ten times alcoholism will be reported in two or more family members.  Environmental causes can occur such as the influence of friends, the easy availability of alcohol, the social acceptance of alcohol and a life containing high stress levels.  Also alcoholism can occur when his or her parents did not teach or treat their child right causing frustration and anxiety to the child later in life.  Or the family teaches the child to drink such as if the father drinks then the child follows the example set by his father.  That child can learn from observation that alcohol may be used to cope with problems such as fatigue, stress and depression.  Also the values of a family can include the encouragement or acceptance of alcohol which both promote drinking. Psychological factors also include in this such as a need to be relieved of anxiety, conflicts within a relationship which are unsolved, or a low self-esteem.  
Phases of Alcoholism
There are four phases of alcoholism which take a period of five to seven years to develop.  Some of these stages can be skipped or not gone in the same order depending on the person.  The first stage is called the warning stage.  It happens when the user consumes alcohol as a form of relief for tension to make them feel better.  The persons drinking habits can increase from often to daily or regularly in which he or she will seek more reasons and occasions to drink.  Lastly during this stage a tolerance is built from the larger consumption of alcohol.  The second stage is dangerous to the person.  The drinker has larger quantities of alcohol to obtain relief.  More frequent and deeper intoxication are part of this phase.  Drinking alone, blackouts and gulping alcohol are symptoms to stage two.  The third stage of alcoholism is the most crucial phase of all.  The drinker loses all control of the amount of alcohol that was intended to be consumed.  Withdrawal from social environment, neglect of responsibility, and the hiding of alcohol occur during phase three. ... more

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Oral Language Developement

Children develop oral language at a very early age.  Almost every sound a human being makes can be considered communication.  As children grow up, they are constantly observing and practicing communication and oral language.  What they know about oral language has an effect on the development of their literacy skills.  Students who had difficulty with early speech communication skills were believed to be at risk for readingand consequently writing (Montgomery, 1998).  Therefore, the development of oral language has an effect on the ways in which emergent readers develop literacy.  
Transcribed dialog taken from a personal interview with a 3-year-old girl named Gianna will be referred to in this paper.  Giannas dialog will provide examples and will be the foundation for the discussion and analysis of language development and its effects on emergent readers.  A language requires the use of signs or symbols within grammar-that is, within a structure of rules that determines how the various signs and symbols are to be arranged.  Language also allows the use of signs or symbols within a grammar to create novel instructions (Dworetzky, 1996, p. 226-227).
Today, more than ever, oral language is being carefully studied and assessed.  It has been only recently that spoken language has been recognized as a condition of learning in all subjects, and thus the assessment of performance in it a necessity (Keenan et. al., 1997).  This is one reason why we must assess oral language.  According to Salvia and Ysseldyke (1998), there are two main reasons for this type of assessment.   First, well-developed language abilities are desirable in and of themselves  (p. 539).  This means that an individual should have the ability to carry on a conversation, as well as, express thoughts, emotions, and feelings.   Second, various language processes and skills are believed to underlie subsequent development.  For example, research indicates that difficulties in oral language are related to the incidence of behavior disorders  (Salvia et. al., 1998, p.539).   However, early detection of these oral-language disorders can have a positive effect on that childs academic development.
There are many different views of oral language.  Language theorists describe the various structural aspects of language.   They also focus on explanatory mechanisms.  More recently, they have been focusing on descriptive types of structural analysis.  Language can be defined as a code for conveying ideas (Salvia et. al., 1998, p. 536).
There are different stages in language development, and each stage is made up of many different components. In the One-Word stage of language development, children develop naming skills.  Naming is a development of early childhood in which the child begins pointing out objects and calling them by name.  It is considered a special development because it appears to be intrinsically reinforcing and satisfying to humans and seems to occur only in our species  (Dworetzky, 1996, p. 236).  Gianna displays the naming skills by pointing to the dog and calling him Simon.  She also correctly names pictures in the coloring book, such as a rocket and Winnie da Pooh  (DiNobile, 1998).  
Naming skills are very similar to logographic knowledge.  This can be applied to emergent readers.  For example, a child may not know how to read the word McDonalds, but she may be able to recognize the sign on a highway.  Children see written language all around them in books, supermarkets, department stores, fast-food restaurants, and on television, signs, and a variety of printed materials from the TV listings to label on household products.  Print is everywhere (Vacca et. al, 1995, p.73).   Children are able to read these familiar words even though they have not yet learned the fundamentals of reading.
Phones or phonemes are the smallest units of speech.  These units have meanings although they are not complete words  (Dworetzky, 1996).  Although Gianna has developed the ability to speak complete words, occasionally she speaks in phonemes.  For example, she says ca instead of could or can.  She also says da for thats, u for use, and wa for what (DiNobile, 1998).
Many teachers use a phonics-based instruction when they teach students to read.  The two most common ways of teaching phonics are: (a) to teach the beginner to segment and blend the letter sounds in a word (synthetic phonics), or (b) to teach ... more

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  • P: Alcoholism P: Alcoholism Alcoholism What is Alcoholism? The definition of alcoholism can be described as a chronic illness, which is marked by uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or occupational responsibilities. This dependence on alcohol has only been diagnosed as a medical disorder recently in the medical field. Like many other diseases, it has a predictable course and is influenced environmentally and sometimes genetically. The disease ca...
  • R: Alcoholism R: Alcoholism Alcoholism What is Alcoholism? The definition of alcoholism can be described as a chronic illness, which is marked by uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or occupational responsibilities. This dependence on alcohol has only been diagnosed as a medical disorder recently in the medical field. Like many other diseases, it has a predictable course and is influenced environmentally and sometimes genetically. The disease ca...
  • O: Oral Language Developement O: Oral Language Developement Oral Language Developement Children develop oral language at a very early age. Almost every sound a human being makes can be considered communication. As children grow up, they are constantly observing and practicing communication and oral language. What they know about oral language has an effect on the development of their literacy skills. Students who had difficulty with early speech communication skills were believed to be at risk for readingand consequently writing (Montgomery, 1998). Th...
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  • I: Alcoholism I: Alcoholism Alcoholism alcoholism Alcoholism refers to the drinking of alcoholic beverages to such a degree that major aspects of an individual's life--such as work, school, family relationships, or personal safety and health--are seriously and repeatedly interfered with. Alcoholism is considered a disease, meaning that it follows a characteristic course with known physical, psychological, and social symptoms. The alcoholic continues to consume alcohol despite the destructive consequences. Alcoholism is ser...
  • S: On August 2, 1923, Calvin Coolidge was vacationing S: On August 2, 1923, Calvin Coolidge was vacationing On August 2, 1923, Calvin Coolidge was vacationing at his father's home at Plymouth,Vermont when one night he was awakened by the tragic news of Warren Harding's death. Harding ,who had been on a public speaking tour of the West, when his health began to deteriorate, tried poorly to alleviate the scandal that have been plaguing his presidency. Praying by candlelight, Coolidge descended the stairs to the plain living room of his father's house, lighted only by two kerosene lamps. Upon an old wood...
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