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The Democratic Republic of Congo
Formerly known as Zaire, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC) is located in the center of Africa bordered by nine different countries and one territory. (Lerner, 10) The bordering countries are Central African Republic and Sudan at the northern boarder, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Burundi on the eastern boarder, Zambia and Angola directly South of DROC and Congo on the Western boarder.
DROC is about one third the size of the United States; consisting of 905,365 square miles of territory it is also the third largest country within the African continent, smaller only to Sudan and Algeria. (Background Notes, 1)
Much like the United States DROC has one major capital and small city capitals. The major capital of the country is Kinshasa, holding a population of 6.55 million alone. The city capitals throughout the country are, Bandundu, Bukavu, Goma, Kananga, Kindu, Kisangani, Lubumbashi, Matadi, Mbandaka, and Mbuji-Mayi. (Background Notes, 1)
The climates within the DROC are very different due to the country being half to the north of the equator and half to the south. The northern portion of the country tends to be cold and dry, whereas the equatorial areas and southern half are hot and humid.
DROC has great wealth of natural resource. Large copper deposits exist in the Shaba region, which also has reserves of cobalt, cadmium, uranium, tin, silver, and gold. (Lerner, 18) In-fact their main export commodities include cobalt, copper, crude oil, cut diamonds, gold, petroleum prodicts, synthetic lubricants, tea and coffee. (Mbendi Profile, 9)
There are four major geographical regions in the country of DROC; these are the Congo River Basin, the Northern Uplands, the Eastern Highlands, and the Southern Uplands.
The Congo River Basin covers about one third of the country reaching a vast 400,000 square miles across the country and is almost evenly divide by the equator. The Congo River Basin is also known as the Cuvette, which is French for "Basin." Rainfall is very plentiful in the Cuvette and it is dominated by dense rainforests. Though rain is plentiful the soil in this region is unfertile therefore resulting in a low population and very few farms.
The Northern Uplands is located along the northern boarder of the country. With an elevation of about 2,500 miles above sea level it is covered mainly savannas and grassland with scattered trees.
The Southern Uplands is somewhat similar to that of the Northern Uplands in the likeness that it also contains savannas and grassy woodlands. Beginning on the southern end of the central basin, this region has an average elevation of about 2,730 feet above sea level, having fertile soils and retaining may of the countries mineral deposits it allows for the locals to grow grains and raise cattle.
The final geographical region is the Eastern Highlands, this great portion extends approximately 958 miles South from lake Mobutu Sese Seko, clear through to the edge of the Shaba region. Retaining lush vegetation and highly fertile soils, this region is highly populated. With Mt. Ngaliema engulfed in the series of rugged plateaus and mountains, which make up the heights, reaching an altitude of 16,791 feet above sea level gives the Eastern Heights the greatest altitude throughout the country (Lerner, 12).
The rivers that flow throughout the DROC are the Congo, Lomani, Aruwimi, Itimburi, Mogala, Ugangi, Uele, Kasim, Sankuru, Lulua, Kwango, and Kwilu (http://africaguide.com/country/zaire/)
The people that dwell within the country of the Democratic Republic of Congo total an estimated population of 51,964,999, and are a blend of over 250 different ethnic groups. (Rosenberg, 3) Within the 250 ethnic groups there are four major ethnic groups, these would be (broken down in percentages) 80% Bantu, 18% Luba, 16.1% Kongo, and 13.5% Mongo. (Background notes, 1) Aside from the different African originated Congolese there are about 50,000 non-African residents that reside in the DROC, most of these are mainly of Belgian decent. (Lerner, 42)
The official spoken language throughout DROC is French; other spoken languages are Lingala, Kingwana (a dialect of Kinswahili or Swahili), Kikongu, and Tshiluba. (Rosenberg, 4)
Religion, both Western and indigenous, occupies pride of place in today's DROC. The Catholic church and the various Protestant groups claim well over half of DROC's population as active members, and as a matter ... more
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Sitting Bull exile to Canada
Many things influenced Sitting Bulls decision to cross the border into Canada. After Custers defeat at Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull had to live life in fear. He fought on the defensive for years. Sitting Bull and his followers fled from the onslaught of American howitzers. He then was able to find sanctuary in the White Grandmothers Country, north of the international boundary. Most of the band drifted back in the next few years; Sitting Bull himself was to return in 1881 to end his exile (Andrist 298)). They faced unknown obstacles, and challenges, all for a chance to live the way they wanted to. When times were bad they looked to the Canadians for assistance. When they could not help Sitting Bull struggle ended and asylum. Canada was no longer an option for Sitting Bulls starving people.
For Sitting Bull and his people the winter of 1876-77 was a winter of despair. Soldiers occupied the hunting grounds and kept the war going even when the snow fell and the temperature plunged(Utley 174). Sitting Bulls options for the survival his people were being held in the hands of the soldiers surrounding his winter encampment. Who could at any time burst into their village, shoot down the people, and destroy their homes and food supplies(Utley 174).
Sitting Bull disliked the alternative of an unconditional surrender, which was out of the question. This surrender would have cost Sitting Bull and his people their guns, and horses. This was unreasonable for people who relied on these valuable tools in almost every aspect in their lives.
In April of 1877 the Miniconjoous, Sans Arcs, Hunkpaps, and others of equal prominence conviened a council at Beaver Creek. Spotted Eagle and Sitting Bull would make speeches advocating continuing the war against the white man. They would eventually realize them necessity to act in the best interest of the people. Sitting Bull stood firm in his way of life, as a hunter.
Around this time Crazy Horse made his decision to surrender. On May 6, Crazy horse surrendered at the Red Cloud agency in Robinson Nebraska. The group which consisted of 889 people, surrendered "12,00 ponies and 117 arms"(Utley182).
Sitting Bull faced new uncertainty in Canada. He had traveled to this country before "following Buffalo or seeking Slotas to trade with" (Utley184). He also knew from experience the contrast between the Grandmother (Canada) and the Great Father of the United States. He would also begin to somewhat trust the Canadians
Sitting bull would soon develop a relationship with a 34-year-old lawman by the name of James M. Walsh. Walsh was a 34-year-old Major for the Northwest Mounted police. Walsh would go on to play an influential role in the issues involving Sitting Bulls stay in Canada.
Walsh was very aware of the actions involving the Sioux. Even before the Battle of Little Bighorn, Walsh and other Mounties had realized that the U.S. military operations against the Sioux and Cheyenne were to drive hostile Indians north across the border (Anderson 1).
On May 7, 1877 Walsh would follow a trail that led up from the Montana, about 50 miles to the south his scouts had said that A good-sized band had passed over this ground(Anderson 1). Walsh and his scouts would have no small task preserving law and order in the border country (Anderson 1). The Canadians were already having problems with their own plains Indians and did not want to add to the numbers for which they were responsible (Adams 337).
These problems arrived at the end of company rule in 1869. American whiskey traders had "spread demoralization and bloodshed among tribes" (Utley 184). This put the Canada in a situation it would have to deal with.
Sitting bull had reached a Slota trading camp on the Big Bend of Milk River by April 16th. Apparently heading for international boundaries. The movement had a total of around one thousand people, occupying 135 lodges. Some of these lodges were new, "but most were old, raged, and patched, all that could be salvaged agreed the Missouri River floodwaters swept through their village in March" (Utley 183). The Lodge of Sitting Bull and his extensive family was the shabbiest ... more
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The Democratic Republic of Congo Formerly known as Zaire, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC) is located in the center of Africa bordered by nine different countries and one territory. (Lerner, 10) The bordering countries are Central African Republic and Sudan at the northern boarder, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Burundi on the eastern boarder, Zambia and Angola directly South of DROC and Congo on the Western boarder. DROC is about one third the size of the United States; consisting of 905,...
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Sitting Bull exile to Canada Many things influenced Sitting Bulls decision to cross the border into Canada. After Custers defeat at Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull had to live life in fear. He fought on the defensive for years. Sitting Bull and his followers fled from the onslaught of American howitzers. He then was able to find sanctuary in the White Grandmothers Country, north of the international boundary. Most of the band drifted back in the next few years; Sitting Bull himself was to retur...
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