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period of the alcoholism

What is Alcoholism?

The definition of alcoholism can be described as a chronic illness, which is marked by uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or occupational responsibilities.  This dependence on alcohol has only been diagnosed as a medical disorder recently in the medical field.  Like many other diseases, it has a predictable course and is influenced environmentally and sometimes genetically.  The disease can also be called progressive and fatal which means that the disease can persist over a long period of time, bodily changes progress as the drinking continues and can cause premature death through overdose, suicide, motor vehicle crashes and complications of the brain, liver, heart, and other organs.  Alcoholism can be detected by four basic symptoms, they are tolerance which is the increasing need to drink excessive amounts to feel its affects, also impaired control which is the problem of not being able to stop oneself from drinking at any given time.  Craving is another symptom characterized by a strong compulsion to drink, and the last one is physical dependence which shows withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, sweating, nausea or shakiness.  Some other common minor symptoms would be solitary drinking, making excuses to drink, episodes of violence while under the influence, unexplained mood swings, neglect of physical appearance, and hostility when confronted about drinking.  Also, one can have what is called preoccupation of alcohol which means excessive focused attention given to the drug, its effects and its use.
Causes of Alcoholism
There is no definite cause of alcoholism, however, many factors can play a role in the development of the disorder. In a family with an alcoholic parent, a child is more likely to become an alcoholic than a child without an alcoholic parent.  Alcoholism can be inherited genetically from parent to child.  An alcoholic disorder can occur if one or both parents drank alcohol at the time of conception or the mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.  A women drinking during pregnancy can also cause several other complications besides a drinking disorder.  In a study done it concluded that if one person in a family was an alcoholic that nine out of ten times alcoholism will be reported in two or more family members.  Environmental causes can occur such as the influence of friends, the easy availability of alcohol, the social acceptance of alcohol and a life containing high stress levels.  Also alcoholism can occur when his or her parents did not teach or treat their child right causing frustration and anxiety to the child later in life.  Or the family teaches the child to drink such as if the father drinks then the child follows the example set by his father.  That child can learn from observation that alcohol may be used to cope with problems such as fatigue, stress and depression.  Also the values of a family can include the encouragement or acceptance of alcohol which both promote drinking. Psychological factors also include in this such as a need to be relieved of anxiety, conflicts within a relationship which are unsolved, or a low self-esteem.  
Phases of Alcoholism
There are four phases of alcoholism which take a period of five to seven years to develop.  Some of these stages can be skipped or not gone in the same order depending on the person.  The first stage is called the warning stage.  It happens when the user consumes alcohol as a form of relief for tension to make them feel better.  The person's drinking habits can increase from often to daily or regularly in which he or she will seek more reasons and occasions to drink.  Lastly during this stage a tolerance is built from the larger consumption of alcohol.  The second stage is dangerous to the person.  The drinker has larger quantities of alcohol to obtain relief.  More frequent and deeper intoxication are part of this phase.  Drinking alone, blackouts and gulping alcohol are symptoms to stage two.  The third stage of alcoholism is the most crucial phase of all.  The drinker loses all control of the amount of alcohol that was intended to be consumed.  Withdrawal from social environment, neglect of responsibility, and the hiding of alcohol occur during phase three. ... more

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The Magyars

The Magyars
The Medieval Period in European History saw several waves of barbarians
which helped shape the face of European society.  The nomadic tribes of people that lived
a migratory life, while other groups were founding civilizations with permanent living
centers, are today referred to as barbarians.  Two great empires, the Chinese and the
Roman, ruled on the extreme edges of the enormous Eurasian continent and were
separated by vast distances.1  The people that existed between the two empires and
roamed the large wasteland were called barbarians.2  They did not have a permanent
living center and therefore raided settled towns and cities for food and riches.  Because of
there roaming ways and raiding tactics, barbarians were feared and hated in the Medieval
World.  The word barbarian is presently associated with being backwards, uneducated,
or indecent; in one word, uncivilized.  These wandering people lived in family orientated
groups called clans, which combined together to form a tribe.  Tribes depended on one
another for protection.  Among these barbarian groups where a traveling people known as
the Magyars.  The Magyars had a major impact on the Carpathian Basin in Central Eastern
Europe, and directly affected the picture of the European landscape that we have today.
The magyars are a mysterious peoples whose origins and connections are highly
debated among scholars and historians.  The first place to begin when searching for
origins, is the language.  The Magyar language is a branch of the Finno-Ugrian family of
languages, most nearly related to Finnish, although supplemented by numerous Turkic
words.3  The language is very unique and their is no other like it in the world.  Popular
2
belief places the origin of the people themselves somewhere in the Orient.  The Old
Magyar Fatherland was probably situated in the ancient Orient, which we call the
Near-East, and played an important role in Mesopotamian lands.4  Linguistic evidence
places the Magyars among the ancient Egyptians.  Contemporary records speak of a
Makari Queen5 from the XXth dynasty; between 1080-940 BC6  Egyptian Kings of the
XIXth dynasty forced the Magyars out of Africa for good.  From their the people
dispersed, moved around the European landmass, including Hungary, and mixed with
other peoples.7  Much of the Finno-Ugrian peoples mainly dispersed in the widespread
region on the west side of the Ural Mountains.8  It was in this region that the Magyars
were exposed to the Turks.  Their language was enriched with Turkic elements while
maintaining its basic Finno-Ugric characteristics.  It is difficult to pinpoint the exact
location of the Magyars during this period because of their nomadic ways.
By the end of the 5th century the Magyars had begun their southward migration
from the Urals and settled east of the Sea of Azov.9  Here they were again under the
influence of Turkic neighbors.  During this period the Magyars patterned themselves after
the Turkic model, becoming a well-disciplined, conquering race.  During the second half
of the 9th century, the warring Turkic Pechenegs put forth pressure on the Magyars
feeding grounds, forcing them to begin their historic westward migration.  Following a


3
Pecheneg attack, the Magyar tribes united under one leader, rpd, who led his people
out of their exposed position in Etelkz and into the Carpathian Basin.10  The seven
Magyar tribal chieftains elected a leader from among them.  After rpd was elected, he
had to lead them in a swearing with ritual drinking of mixed blood to unify them and make
their claim as head of the nation valid.
In 894, Sviatopluk sent envoys to the Magyars for help against the
Frankish-Bulghar confederation, while the Bulghars wanted an alliance with the
Pechenegs.  The Magyars joined forces with Sviatopluk and attacked the Franks in
Pannonia.  During this period the weaknesses of the lands were made out by the Magyars,
and that same year they were back, raiding Pannonia for themselves.11  In late 895 or early
896 the Magyars crossed the Carpathian mountains for good through the Verecke pass
and launched a military campaign that would come to be known as the Conquest12.  The
Pechenegs crossed over the river Don and took the Magyars by surprise, causing them to
flee to the Transylvanian mountains for protection.  Most of the Magyar forces were off
fighting the Bulgars.  Upon their return, with reinforcements, they ousted the Pechenegs
from the Great Plain and Transylvania.  They fought and gained possession of the Alfld.
During this time Moravian rule governed the area.  The Germans and Moravians united
against the Magyars, but by 900 AD Frankish rule in Pannonia had vanished.13  In 907 a
Bavarian army was ... more

period of the

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