Cloning

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Cloning
The biological definition of a clone is an organism that has the same genetic information as another organism or organisms, where else cloning is any process in which production of a clone is successful. These are facts that many people don't want them to become a reality within our humanity. On the other hand, other people support and want produce human clones. Who's right? Should we not let science advance freely? Should we take the power of God and mess around with it? Cloning is a big issue these days; the opinion of our community comes into conflict when debating this serious issue.
Amazingly, the first attempts at artificial cloning were as early as the beginning of this century.  Adolph Eduard Driesch allowed the eggs of a sea urchin develop into the two-blastomere stage.  Then he separated it by shaking it in a flask and allowing them to grow.  The cells developed into dwarf sea urchins.  Driesch could not explain his experiments and gave up embryology for philosophy (McKinnel, 1979).
    The first implantation of a nucleus into an egg cell occurred in 1952 by Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King in Philadelphia.  They had transferred the nuclei of Leopard Frogs' eggs (McKinnel, 1979).  The egg cells did not develop. Successful cloning of embryo cells was accomplished later in the 1970's by Dr. John Gurdon.
    During the late seventies and early eighties, there were few scientists still studying cloning.  Many had predicted that it was impossible to clone embryonic mammal cells.  Few continued with research.  Many gave up and went into other fields. However, some persisted and were rewarded for their efforts.
    In 1984, Dr. Steene Willadsen announced that he had successfully transferred nuclei from embryos of sheep to produce clones (Kolata, 1997). More exciting was when Dr. Neal First produced cows by nuclear transfer from more developed embryos in 1994 (Kolata, 3 June 1997).  Dr. First produced four calves.  Two years later, Dr. Ian Wilmut and Dr. Keith Campbell, of the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, produced for the world Megan and Morag, the first cloned sheep from embryo cells.  Their new technique involved the starving of the donor embryo.  This would put the cell in the right moment in the cell cycle therefore it will allow the genetic material to integrate more successfully with the egg cell. Dr. Wilmut and Dr. Campbell became world famous after this great achievement.  Their fame was not finished yet however.
On July 5 at 4:00 P.M. lamb number 6LL3 (Campbell, 1997), or Dolly, was born shed down the road from the Institute. She weighted 14 pounds and was healthy. They accomplish this by using a more sophisticated nuclear transfer method, which is supposed to be more efficient than the prior methods. This procedure occurred late in January of 1996. This was the day of fusion date for Dolly, which is the natural equivalent to a conception date. An interesting note is that three different sheep were involved in producing Dolly, versus the usual two or one (in-vitro fertilization). Furthermore, the Roslin scientists used three different breeds for each sheep to prove that the experiment was a success. (Kolata, 3 March 1997)
      From a Functionalist view, cloning could directly offer a means of curing diseases or a technique that could extend means to acquiring new data for embryology and development of organisms as a whole. Currently, the agricultural industry demands nuclear transfer to produce better livestock. The goal of nuclear transfer in livestock is to produce livestock with ideal characteristics for the agricultural industry and to be able to manufacture biological products such as proteins for humans. Scientists also ponder the idea of cloning endangered species to increase their population.  The possibilities are endless.
Moreover scientists foresee the cloning of pigs to produce organs that humans will not reject (Wills, 1998).  Also, as mentioned earlier, livestock can produce biological proteins helping people who have diseases including diabetes, Parkinson's, and Cystic Fibrosis (Kolata, 2 December 1997).  Cloning also provides better research capabilities for finding cures to many diseases.  There are also possibilities that nuclear transfer could provide benefits to those who would like children.  For instance, couples who are infertile, or have genetic disorders, could use cloning to produce

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