The Cask of Amontillado
Anything not taken in moderation can be damaging. In one of Edgar Allen Poe's best-known tales of horror, "The Cask of Amontillado," he suggests that pride can be a very dangerous thing, when one is overwhelmed with it. Through the use of foreshadowing, irony, and symbolism, Poe presents a horrific drama of two men. One who will stop at nothing to get the revenge that he deems himself and his family worthy of, and another who's pride will ultimately be the fall of his own death. Fortunato falls prey to Montressor's plans because he is so proud of his connoisseurship of wine, and it is for the sake of his own pride that Montressor takes revenge on Fortunato. Poe utilizes the theme of pride and many other literary techniques such as foreshadowing, revenge, and irony, in order to create a horrific and suspenseful masterpiece.
In "The Cask of Amontillado," Poe utilizes foreshadowing in a most grim and dark way. First, when Fortunato says, "I shall not die of a cough" 1, Montressor replies, "True-true"2. Instead, Montressor knows that Fortunato will perish from his vengeful scheme of walling him up, and having him die of starvation and dehydration. Fortunato is a proud man and he does not think that his death with be due to something as petty as a cold. Rather, he believes that his life will end as a result of some courageous act and he will die a noble death. However, Montressor can only laugh at this thought because he knows Fortunato's death will be far from noble and his pride will be broken when he is caught in his trap. Another instance of foreshadowing comes with the trowel scene. At one point in their journey, Fortunato makes a movement that is a secret sign of the Masons, an exclusive, fraternity-like organization. Montressor does not recognize this hand signal, but claims that he is a "mason". When Fortunato asks for proof, Montressor shows him his trowel. Montressor implies here he is a stonemason and, that he will be building things out of stones and mortar such as Fortunato's grave.
Irony is also used throughout this tale. The use of revenge in this story shows irony. Montressor avenges himself by fooling Fortunato into literally walking into his own grave. Fortunato pursues the "cask" which ends up being his own casket. Montressor even asks Fortunato repeatedly whether he would like to turn back. Fortunato refuses to leave the catacombs until he proves that he is a true connoisseur of wine and that he knows more about wine then Luchesi. He will not allow his pride to be hurt even if it means getting sicker or catching pneumonia. With Montressor's trap, he takes Fortunato completely by surprise and makes his death ironic. Fortunato is the one eager to get to the end of the catacombs. Irony is also found in Montressor's statement to his friend that they should return because Fortunato's "health is precious" 3. This is ironic because Montressor does not really want to protect Fortunato's health, but indeed to kill him.
The short story, "The Cask of Amontillado," also contains a good deal of symbolism. The black silk mask and "roquelaire" 4, or cape, which Montressor puts on before entering the catacombs, represents the devil or death. They represent and tell the reader what Montressor has planned. His "getting even" is evil and will mean death to Fortunato. The coat of arms of Montressor's family is another example of symbolism and foreshadowing in the whole story. Montressor's description of it is "A huge human foot d'or, in a field azure; the foot crushes a serpent rampant whose fangs are imbedded in the heel" 5. In this image, the foot is symbolic of Montressor and the serpent of Fortunato. Montressor is very proud but he feels that he was wronged and that Fortunato had insulted both him and his family, or so we are to believe. He says, "I must not only punish, but punish with impunity" 6. Although Fortunato has hurt Montressor, the coat of arms suggests that Montressor will ultimately crush him. It is his duty and obligation to right the wrongs done to his family,