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panama canal treaty The Spanish-American War

During the last years of the nineteenth century, the United States would find itself involved in what John Jay, the American secretary of state, later referred to as a "splendid little war; begun with highest motives, carried on with magnificent intelligence and spirit, favored by that fortune which loves the brave." From an American standpoint, because there were few negative results, and so many significantly positive consequences, John Jay was correct in calling the Spanish-American War a "splendid little war." The defeat of the Spanish forces marked the end of their rule in the Americas and also marked the rise of the United States as a global military power. The Spanish-American War affected the United States in a number of other ways. It helped speed the construction of the Panama Canal and also resulted in the U.S.'s acquisition of foreign territories. There were also many other minor positive outcomes to the war as opposed to the few negative consequences that resulted.

The Spanish-American War was the brief conflict that the United States waged against Spain in 1898. The war had grown out of the Cuban struggle for independence, and whose other causes included American imperialism and the sinking of the U.S warship Maine. The actual hostilities in the war lasted four months, from April 25 to August 12, 1898. Most of the fighting occurred in or near the Spanish colonial possessions of Cuba and the Philippines, nearly halfway around the world form each other. In both battlegrounds, the decisive military event was the complete destruction of a Spanish naval squadron by a vastly superior U.S. fleet. These victories, after brief resistance, brought about the surrender of the Spanish to U.S. military forces as indicated by a peace treaty signed between the two countries on December 10, 1898, in Paris, France. In the end, the Americans had minimal casualties, while the Spanish suffered immense fatalities and damage to their naval resources (Encyclopedia Britannica).

The Spanish-American War marked the end of Spain's colonial empire and the end of its rule in the Americas. Since the early 19th century, Americans had watched the series of revolutions that ended Spanish authority throughout South America, Central America, and Mexico. Many people in the United States, however, were irritated by the fact that the Spanish flag continued to fly in Cuba and Puerto Rico. Spain's brutal ways of putting down Cuban demands for some form of personal liberty aroused feelings of sympathy and anger among Americans (Chidsey). Support for the cause of Cuban independence had deep historical roots in the United States, and this cause became the stated objective of the war (www.zpub.com). When the U.S. navy destroyed the escaping Spanish ships, the war was unofficially over. The Spanish later surrendered after negotiations indicating the end of the hostilities in the Caribbean. The Treaty of Paris, which officially signaled the end of the war, among other things provided for Spain's withdrawal from Cuba. The Spanish-American War, an important turning point in the history of the United States, was also extremely significant to the Spanish. Spain's defeat decisively turned the nation's attention away from its overseas colonial adventures, and inward upon its domestic needs. This was a process that led to both a cultural and literary renaissance as well as two decades of much-needed economic development in Spain. The war, ultimately, marked the end of the Spanish Empire in the Americas.

Perhaps the greatest outcome of the war was that it marked the rise of the United States as a global military power. The war gave the United States a chance to show and prove its naval powers. Consequently, it did by defeating the Spanish fleet in the Philippines as well as the fleet stationed in Cuba, which they also effectively blockaded. Despite poor planning, the strategic and decisive victory over the Spanish gave the Americans an international recognition as a great power. The significant American ground victories at Las Gusimas and San Juan Hill showed that the U.S. also had a strong and effective army. With these consistent land and 'at-sea' victories, it did not take long for the American forces to force the Spanish to surrender, and also establish themselves as a strong military power. "The United ... more

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AP Theodore Rosevelt Outline and Evaluation

(I got 100% on this one.)
Out line:

I. Theodore Roosevelt (republican)
     A. Birth: October 27, 1858 at New York, New York
     B. Died: January 6, 1919 at Oyster Bay, New York

II. Background
     A. Education-
Attended Harvard and he graduated 21st of 177. He studied in the fields of sciences, German, rhetoric, philosophy, and ancient languages. (1876-1880)
Attended Columbia Law School, but he dropped out to run for the state assembly. (1880-1881)
     B. Occupation-
Elected into the New York State Assembly as a Republican, and during his time in the Assembly, his consistent struggle against machine politics earned him the nickname of "the cyclone assemblyman." (1881-1884)
Wrote the biography of Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri and The Winning of the West (1884-1889)
Appointed to the U.S. Civil Service Commission by President Benjamin Harrison. During which time, he vigorously pressed for the strict enforcement of the civil service laws. (1889-1895)
President of the New York City Police Board. He used his time there to root out corruption in the Police Department, which he described as "utterly demoralized." (1895-1897)
Assistant Secretary of the Navy, during which time he stood as a principle advocate of expansionism. He initiated the invasion of Cuba without the Secretary's approval, and with it the Spanish-American war. (1897-1898)
First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, also known as the "Rough Riders", during the Spanish American War, rising from lieutenant colonel to colonel. (May to September 1898)
Governor of New York . During his term, which was abbreviated when he took the office of vice-president, he obtained laws that further removed civil service from politics, that limited the number of hours that women and children could work, that curbed sweatshop abuses, and that put a state tax on corporations. (1898-1900)

III. Term in Office
     A. First Term-
Presidency: September 14, 1901 - March 3, 1905
Vice President: Charles Warren Fairbanks
     B. Second Term-
Presidency: March 4, 1905 - March 3, 1909
Vice President: Charles Warren Fairbanks

IV. Issues
     A. Election of 1900
Succeeded to office after President William McKinley was shot, making him the youngest president, at 42, ever to serve in office.
B. Election of 1904
Both candidates, Parker and Roosevelt, stood behind the same views on the fundamental issues:
They stood behind the gold standard.
They favored an eventual independence for the Philippines.
They championed the rights of laborers and consumers.
They condemned monopoly.
2.     Neither candidate campaigned actively.
3.     The campaign turned on personality and, in the end, voters chose Roosevelt's flamboyant, popular style over Parker's colorless, sober demeanor.

V. Opponents
     A. Election of 1900
None
B. Election of 1904
Judge Alton B. Parker (Democrat)

VI. Domestic Happenings
     A. JP Morgan organizes the US Steel Corp. (1901)
United States Steel Corporation became the largest corporation in the world through the consolidation of most existing steel companies in the United States.
Controlled about 75% of the country's steel output in 785 plants with a total of about $1.4 billion in assets.
Consolidation included the Carnegie steel interests, which were purchased for $400 million.
     B. The Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902
Advanced the cause of conservation.
Roosevelt was an enthusiastic supporter of this bill, which dealt with reclamation and irrigation.
     C. Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
When the anthracite coal miners held a strike, Roosevelt became the first president to intervene in a labor-management dispute, threatening to seize the mines in order to persuade the stubborn owners to accept mediation.
An arbitration commission subsequently awarded the miners a favorable settlement.
     D. Lochner v. New York (1905)
The Supreme Court invalidated a maximum-hour labor law enacted by the state of New York.
Joseph Lochner had been found guilty of violating an 1897 law that prohibited employers from allowing employees to work more than 60 hours per week or 10 hours per day in bakeries.
The purpose of the law was to protect the health of bakers who worked long hours in the heat generated by the ovens.
The Court, with Justice Rufus W. Peckham as its spokesman, declared the law unconstitutional on the grounds that it violated "freedom of contract" implicitly guaranteed by the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.
The statute, said Peckham, interfered with the right of employees and employers to make a contract of labor.
     E. Hepburn Act (1906)
It was an attempt for moderate reformist action, it strengthened the authority of ... more

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