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other advocates of Woodstock

Woodstock 1969: Peace and Love Woodstock was a rock music festival that took place near Woodstock, New York in a town called Bethel. The festival took place over three days, August 15, 16, and 17, 1969. The original plan for Woodstock was an outdoor rock festival, "three days of peace and music" in the Catskill village of Woodstock. The festival was expected to attract 50,000 to 100,000 people. It was estimated that an unexpected 400,000 or more people attended. If it werent for Woodstock, rock and roll wouldnt be where it is today. Woodstock became a symbol of the 1960s American counterculture and a milestone in the history of rock music. The original plan for Woodstock had been to build a recording studio in the town of Woodstock (Sandow, 1). Woodstock had become a rock center when musician Bob Dylan and a rock group called The Band settled there.
To promote the idea of the studio the four partners of the music festival (Michael Lang; Artie Kornfield; John Roberts; and Joel Rosenman) decided to stage a concert, which they officially called the Woodstock Festival and Art Fair. The Monterey Pop Festival held in Monterey, California, in 1967 inspired the Woodstock festival (Sandow, 1). The Woodstock partners eventually rented a field from a prominent local dairy farmer, Max Yasgur, who owned land about 48 miles from Woodstock. Early in the week before the festival, it became clear that the event was going to draw a much larger audience than expected. People from as far away as Michigan and California came to listen to the 24 rock groups ("Age, 1"). Thousands more people would have come if police had not blocked off access roads. By the day before the official opening, traffic jams miles long blocked most roads leading to the area. The intense traffic on Route 17B towards Bethel, New York that afternoon didn't seem to bother anyone as people all exchanged friendly waves. They knew that they were all on our way to the same place to enjoy "three days of peace and music." Had the festival lasted much longer, as many as one million youths might have made the trip to Bethel. What started off as a promotion for a music studio, ended up as one of the most significant political and social events of the age.
The main attraction of the festival was an all-star cast of top rock artists. Some of the greatest musicians of the 1960s performed, including singers Janis Joplin, Ravi Shankar, Arlo Guthrie, and Joan Baez as well as the bands The Stone; and Creedence Clearwater Revival (Sandow, 1). Singer Joe Cocker and guitar player Carlos Santana, up to then unknown, became overnight stars. Some performers who were scheduled to appear could not due to traffic problems. Jimi Hendrix ended the event with a freeform solo guitar performance of "The Star Spangled Banner."
The dictionary defines a hippie as one who doesnt conform to societys standards and advocates a liberal attitude and lifestyle. Most of the people at Woodstock were not hippies in the commonly accepted sense: a good half of them, at least, were high school or college students from middle class homes ("The Big Woodstock, 33"). But at Woodstock they exhibited to the world many of the hippie values and life styles, from psychedelic clothing to spontaneous, unashamed nudity to open and casual sex, and also illicit drugs. Youthful imaginations were captured, most obviously, by the hippie sound: driving, deafening hard beat of rock, music that is not just a particular form of pop but the anthem of revolution. A hippies goal is to accomplish peace, love and freedom in society. To be a hippie you must believe in peace as the way to resolve differences among people, ideologies and religions ("The Way of, 3"). Most hippies believe that the way to peace is through love and tolerance. Loving means accepting others as they are, giving them freedom to express themselves and not judging their behaviors according to a narrow definition. This is the core of the hippie lifestyle. Freedom is the leading quality in this system. Freedom to do as one pleases, go where the flow takes you, and being open to ... more

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Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux

Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux
1827 - 1875
The son and grandson of stonemasons, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux was born in 1827 in Valenciennes and moved to Paris at the age of eleven. Beginning in the early 1840s he studied at the Petite Ecole, the state school for training in the applied arts, formally called the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin, before entering the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1844, where he changed masters repeatedly, oscillating between typical student ambition (optimal credentials for the Prix de Rome) and his interest in more liberal approaches. Carpeaux moved from Ecole painter Abel de Pujol (1785-1861), to the independent sculptor Franois Rude, and finally to the prestigious Ecole sculptor Francisque-Joseph Duret (1804-1865). After winning lesser competitions--despite being caught cheating--Carpeaux was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1854, but outstanding imperial commissions and illness delayed his departure until 1856.
Once in Rome Carpeaux intensified his reputation as institutional bad boy, canny professional maneuverer, and provocative artist. As a pensionnaire he battled repeatedly with the Villa Medici authorities and flouted Ecole policy. Yet his major envois--the Neapolitan Fisherboy and multi-figural Ugolino (both begun 1857)--introduced his name in Paris and provided the artistic and commercial germs for his entire life. His pre-eminence, as the star among emerging sculptors, was established at the Salon of 1863, where he exhibited finished versions of those two works as well as his new state portrait bust of the emperor's powerful cousin, Princess Mathilde, which earned him a first-class medal.
He entered the imperial circle in 1864 as artistic tutor to the Prince Imperial, and executed the boy's bust and full-scale portrait statue for the prince's parents (both mid-1860s, marble; Muse d'Orsay, Paris). He also received some of the most significant monumental commissions of the period: the architectural decoration of the Pavillon de Flore of the Palais du Louvre (1863-1866, Imperial France Enlightening the World and the Triumph of Flora); and The Dance (1865-1869) for the facade of the Paris Opra. His native Valenciennes commissioned several public projects between 1860 and 1884, including a monument to another of its native artists, Antoine Watteau (1684-1721).
This extraordinary activity was interrupted by the upheavals after the fall of the Second Empire and by Carpeaux's increasing frailty with cancer. He executed some smaller figures and portraits upon commission and completed his monumental projects in Paris (1868-1874, Observatory Fountain, Jardin du Luxembourg). He mainly focused on amassing income through commercial edition, hoping to recoup his devastating financial losses from those projects and from the war. Estranged from his family, Carpeaux spent the last two years of his life traveling, in the care of patrons, and in clinics. He died in 1875.
An ambitious entrepreneur even as an Ecole student--a flagrant violation of the academic policy forbidding commerce--Carpeaux produced serial works throughout his career. Most were reductions or spinoffs of his Salon figures, public monuments, or celebrated portraits. They emerged in a variety of materials, dimensions, and mounts, executed by numerous sources: celebrated bronze founders, the state Manufacture de Svres, and his own vast studio in Auteuil. He made use of exhibition outlets throughout Europe--notably the coveted (and juried) industrial sections of international exhibitions--as well as provincial exhibitions throughout France, and sold his work at auction in Paris, London, and continental Europe every year beginning in 1870. He learned the risks and rewards of retaining reproduction rights over his models early in his career. As a student, his refusal to sell works to the government so that he could control the rights to it smacked of dangerous pride, a strategy that ultimately paid handsomely in commercial terms.
Carpeaux provided a highly visible, radical alternative to prevailing norms for sculptors of his own generation as well as the following one. Considered a telling barometer of his age, he and his work aroused bitter public debate. Critics accused him of shameless ambition for seeking constant public exposure. His work was considered just as aggressive. Advocates and opponents alike agreed that his architectural decorations overwhelmed their architectural frameworks. His sumptuous use of baroque and rococo idioms was either excoriated for plagiarism or hailed as embodying the special grandeur of modern times. With its intense expressive energy and naturalism on the one hand, and richly articulated surfaces and ... more

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