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health for kids
Nutrition for Infants, Children, and Adolescents
Each child is an unique individual whose heredity and environment shape the course of his or her life. Woven into the daily life are aspects of food and nutrition. What childhood memories of food do you have? Are these memories healthy or unhealthy?
Foods and their nutrients are essential to life. In the beginning years of life an infant’s nutritional health depends on the family unit. Parents must have knowledge of the changing food needs of the child and must also have sufficient resources to provide food, shelter, and clothing for the family. Equally important, parents create the cultural and psychological environment that influences the development of food habits, setting the patterns for later years.
During the preschool years some children depend solely on family caregivers for their nutritional needs. For other preschooler children the responsibility for meeting nutritional needs is shared by the family and others, such as caregivers in child-care centers and babysitters. The child entering school becomes influenced by teachers and peers, and learns to broaden his or her experiences with food. For many people, the adolescent years often are turbulent as the teenager seeks independence and freedom from adult rules and standards.
In this research, I will focus on nutrition, in retrospect to growth and development in infants, preschoolers, school children and adolescents.
Infants vary widely in their growth patterns, so it would be unwise to compare one infant with another. Yet there is value in being familiar with typical patterns of growth and development. At birth, the fetus makes an abrupt transition to life outside the uterus. Adaptation to extrauterine life is one of the most important steps in the life cycle because, for many systems in the body, birth precipitates dramatic changes in function. The respiratory system undergoes major changes as the newborn’s lungs fill with air during the first breath, and gas exchange across the pulmonary circulation abruptly replaces placental transfer.
Similarly, birth triggers a major transformation in nutritional pathways and metabolism of the newborn. At a time when nutritional needs are high (per unit body weight higher than at any other time after birth) the newborn must abruptly begin to swallow, digest, and absorb a variety of complex proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. No longer are readily available simple substrates provided by the mother via the placenta.
The newborn begins to convert substrates-protein to glucose, glucose to fat, and must adapt to a discontinuous supply of nutrients. Glycogen stored during feedings must be converted to glucose to support energy needs between feedings. Adding further to the vulnerability of the newborn period, many of the digestive and absorptive functions of the newborn are incompletely developed (Schmitz, 1991).
To ease the transition through this turbulent period, the newborn needs to be provided with easily digestible and bioavailable nutrition in the form of breast milk or infant formula. The infant depends on a diet of closely regulated composition and does not achieve nutritional independence until weaning.
Here I will focus on the physical growth during infancy. Physical growth is more rapid during the first few months postpartum than at any other time after birth. In the first three months, a healthy infant’s birth length increases by 20% and, by the end of the first year, by 50%. By the end of infancy (2 year old) the average child has already achieved half the ultimate adult height. Although the rate of growth is remarkably high during infancy, it is actually decelerating from the extremely high rates achieved during growth in utero. ( ) A healthy infant gains about 25 cm during the first year, but growth rate slows during the second year. From age 1 to 2 years the average age height increases is 1-13cm.
As the newborn adjusts to life outside to uterus, changes in physiology produce losses of body water and small amounts of body tissues. Also, in the first few days after birth, the energy supplied by breast milk does not yet meet the needs of the newborn. As a result, the infant loses about 6% of birthweight in the first few days after birth. By the end of the first week the infant begins to gain weight rapidly ... more
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Tattoo or not to tattoo... the
Tattoo or not to Tattoo:
An informative guide to the history, selection,
care, and removal of skin art.
Tattoo or not to Tattoo
Tattoos or skin art as it is commonly called, seems to be the latest fashion trend today. Everywhere you look someone else is getting inked, be it could be the college student, the young mom next door, or the executive in his business suit. The history, selection, safety , and care along with some removal methods are not always obvious nor is a non-permanent alternative. All these things and more will be revealed in a few short moments.
The history of skin arts beginnings are some what unclear. Some people like tattoo artist Erik Reime think that it goes back to biblical times, in fact it could be conceived that GOD created the first tattoo when he put "the mark upon Cain" (3). For others it originated n Egypt or as V. Wageman reviews in Victoria Lautmans book The New Tattoo the first tattoo may have come about when "some stone age klutz fell down near a hearth[and] found charcoal embedded in his flesh"(8).
through out history we can see that tattoos have served a variety of purposes. They have been the distinguishing mark of a slave or a ruler, they were and still are used in prisons and more recently have become a means of personal expression. In the eighteenth century Capt. James Cook brought back to England some tattooed South Sea islanders. Cooks seamen were among the first westerners to have full body tattoos. From there tattoos progressed to the US where slaves were branded with their owners name or some other distinguishing mark. In a web page written and maintained by Robert Birkins we can see how skin art was also used in the prison camps of the former soviet union where a complex language was developed using tattoos as symbols. Such languages have been studied by specialists in hopes of cutting crime rates in the USSR. Some examples of prison tattoos are: Insert
From there we progress to modern day, where skin art has become an avenue of self expression. In our generation the tattoo is seen more as who you are than as a political statement or "brand". Tattoo's today are about experiences, feelings, and a permanent sense of self-worth and pride.
The selection of your skin art is as important as the selection of the artist that applies it and of the care that will later be needed to keep it beautiful. One should always be sure that the design is something that you have a love or passion for, whether you decide on "flash" (ready made artwork that is usually found on the salon walls or in their portfolios) or have an original design, the art you have applied will be with you always and like it or not the artwork you pick will determine the way some people view you. The traditional way to have a tattoo is of course with needles and ink. There is nothing like the pure and natural adrenaline rush that occurs when you sit in the tattoo artists chair and listen while the high pitched hum of some 1,800 pricks per minute machine makes its mark upon your body. One of the most commonly asked questions is "does it hurt"? This question has been answered by tattoo artist and salon owner Eric Reine, when he replied yes of course it hurts; however please remember that there are several deciding factors on exactly how much pain you'll be in. Among these factors are, where the artwork is located, how big the design is, and how high your tolerance for pain is. All of these are determining factors of how bad the pain will be. Large pieces on your back will hurt a lot more than Insert a quarter size tattoo on your arm. Generally speaking any piece done on the ankle Insert , wrist or fingers will hurt more than one done on a "fleshy" part of the body simply because of the lack of padding, but please don't let this be the deciding factor in "where should I put my ... more
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R: Health for kids
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A: Tattoo or not to tattoo... the
Tattoo or not to tattoo... the Tattoo or not to Tattoo: An informative guide to the history, selection, care, and removal of skin art. Tattoo or not to Tattoo Tattoos or skin art as it is commonly called, seems to be the latest fashion trend today. Everywhere you look someone else is getting inked, be it could be the college student, the young mom next door, or the executive in his business suit. The history, selection, safety , and care along with some removal methods are not always obvious nor...
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