Find More Openness

Looking for essays on openness? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

openness NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has been a silent partner on the world
stage for more than half of the century and the most successful
political-military alliance in history. The United Nations and their
peacekeeping efforts have had the spotlight for the past few years. However the
driving force behind any successful agreement or, if needed, action on the part
of several countries has been because of the strong foundation and experience of
NATO and its members. The following report will chronicle the events leading up
to the creation of NATO, its first decade, the constant struggle with communism
in the decades that proceed, and finally the challenges for NATO today and in
the future. In the years after World War II, a new threat encroached upon the
leaders of Western Europe and their hopes of a stable peace. This threat would
be from the growing dominance of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
in Eastern Europe. The USSR had an increasing appetite for the smaller countries
to her west. These aggressive demands for territory and the placing of
installations in taken countries fueled the fears of many that the USSR was
marching toward a third world war. Britain and France, not wanting to make the
mistake again of appeasing this new menace until it was too late, developed the
Dunkirk Treaty in 1947. This treaty in essence pledged a common defense against
any aggression. The USSR answered this by creating a European Communist
organization called the Cominform and it rejected the European Recovery Program,
which is commonly known as the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan, named for the
US Secretary of State, was basically a financial bailout for the European
nations. These nations were starving because of the slow and near stopping of
the coal and agricultural industries after WWII. The US offered millions of
dollars to all of Europe to aid in rebuilding for four reasons. First, Europe
had been a great marketplace imports and exports for the US. Second,
historically West Germany had been an industrial hub and needed to be brought
back to tip-top shape to buffer the expanding USSR. Third, with its increasing
mass the USSR was becoming a rival to the US. Lastly, without this aid Western
Europe might look to the USSR for help, which would make life a lot tougher for
American interests. The year of 1948 was pivotal for Europe. In February, the
Communists in Prague staged a coup detat and the spring brought the beginning
of the Cold War. Immediately after WWII, Germany was divided in to occupation
zones by Britain, France, the US, and USSR. The capital of Germany at the time
was Berlin, which happened to fall in the Soviet zone. The governing
administration located in Berlin fell, because of the obvious reason of too
many cooks spoil the broth. When this happened, the USSR demanded that Berlin
become solely part of the Soviet zone, since its status as capital was ruined.
The USSR enforced this ruling by blockading all land routes into and tried to
force the other powers out of its respective sectors of Berlin. Eventually the
Berlin Blockade was squelched by a military airlift that lasted the rest of the
year. The city still remained divided and became known as East (Soviet
controlled) and West Berlin. This transgression on the part of the USSR prompted
negotiations between Western Europe, the US and Canada that resulted in the
North Atlantic Treaty. The language of the North Atlantic Treaty originally
consisted of its preamble and fourteen articles. The preamble states that
members will promote common values and will unite their efforts for a
collective defense. The key article of the North Atlantic Treaty is number
five (its the one that inspired my title) it reads, The Parties agree that
an armed attack against one or more of themshall be considered an attack
against them all. Another interesting article is the last one, number
fourteen, and it calls for the deposition of the official copies of the treaty
to be kept in the US Archives. The US already was establishing itself as the
dominant member of an organization that is supposed to be based on equal
responsibility. After the ratification of this treaty the structure of the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) began. The highest policy-making body in
NATO is the North Atlantic Council, which met in Paris until 1967. The council
composed of permanent delegates from all members was responsible for general
policy, budgetary outlines, intergovernmental consultation and administrative
actions. There are two main temporary committees ... more


Research on Openness

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Openness" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Openness essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Openness and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Openness

Find essay on Openness

Futzing Around With Sexual Stereotypes

Live Nudes: Futzing Around With Sexual Stereotypes

[W]ith neither money nor careers at stake, caution is unnecessary, you can do anything, said Michael Smith, an important figure in the Off Off-Broadway movement, about the glib attitude and openness of Off Off-Broadway Theater.  An anything goes attitude was the essence of avant-garde theater.  Fittingly, nakedness on stage was not uncommon in the Off Off-Broadway theaters.  John Elsom, an expert of eroticism in the theater, stated, nakedness meant freedom: clothes and respectability -- tyranny (200).  Homosexuality was even more commonplace and seemed to be considered fashionable by these avant-garde artists.  The mere existence of radical Off Off-Broadway Theater served as a catalyst for more open sexuality, especially nakedness on stage, homosexuality, and the involvement of women in theater and popular culture.  In Rochelle Owenss play Futz, the shock value is bestiality.  Cy Futz openly loves his sow, Amanda, and his society does not accept this and persecutes him.  Owens uses bestiality to represent a lifestyle that an individual leads that is not accepted by society, like homosexuality, and the ridiculous persecution by society for a lifestyle that is different than normal.  Futz embodies three distinct aspects of avant-garde theater in New York: the emergence of nudity on stage, the surfacing of homosexuality in the arts, and the liberation of women; Futz manifests the changing political and social attitudes of the times.
Nudity and erotic messages were used to shock the audience, very much like Antonin Artaud, whose techniques and theories influenced the development of avant-garde theater.  Stavros Kolliopoulos says in his article about Artaud that he sought to establish a physical language without transcendental references, directing his fury against society in a state of constant confrontation.   Artaud saw theater as a primal force and believed in the expression of primitivism in his work (Harding 60).  The importance of nakedness had two distinct motives, yet only the second pertains to Owens play.  These moments of nudity caused exposure for the performance, but more importantly, nakedness symbolized a rejection of middle-class standards (Elsom 200).  Owens, by the mere fact that she was involved with Off Off-Broadway Theater, was rejecting middle-class standards.  She was not, on the other hand, using sexuality and nudity to cause exposure, for popular success was of little importance to her and to Off Off-Broadway as a whole.  Futz and all of Off Off-Broadway was a reaction against mass-marketing and monotonous commercialism.  Emory Lewis wrote in his chronology of theater that most of the young, fearless explorers start off with the radical premise that there is another America and another culture conveniently ignored by the mass media; they are in absolute revolt against the Establishment and those they regard as its brainwashed followers (138-9).  This movement embodied the many protests of the time, and it manifested the doing-your-own-thing aspect of the counterculture revolution.  Of course an institution built and prided on such a removal from consumer society would include nudity and sex.  The novelty of nakedness on stage wore thin when nudity became more of a crucial aspect to other mediums of entertainment, such as film and nowadays, nudity on stage and in film is ordinary and has no apparent shock value.
Tom OHorgans work, most specifically Futz, became famous because of its scandalous nature of the sexual-erotic content, the seemingly orgiastic physicality, and the occasional near or full nudity (Aronson 96).  Tom OHorgan was the original director for Futz in Ellen Stewarts La Mama Experimental Theater Club.  OHorgan gained notoriety from his work in the first ever rock opera, Hair.  OHorgan followed four elements to his direction (Berkowitz 146).  First, he attempted to de-emphasize the text and concentrate on the performance and the emotion of the live actors.  Second, he had his characters communicate nonverbally at times and explored nonrational communication.  Third, he tried to make the audience and the actors interact, thus breaking down the fourth wall.  Finally, he tried to utilize all aspects of the theater and the current technology.  He used all of these aspects in his production of Futz.  At times during OHorgans performances the actors became vulnerable, stopped acting, and were naked for the audience to see.  The fourth wall had been broken down, ... more



What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling


Browse Essays

  • O: Arrested Development O: Arrested Development Arrested Development Default individualization is a path which someone can follow by accepting personally bounding identities which are socially accepted. Basically each person accepting the same identity of that of the person right next to them. By not being their own individual, these identities may possibly delay growth into adulthood. Things in life happen by default for these people, whatever happens just happens, and it is not planned out or thought of to any extent. This individualization...
  • P: NATO P: NATO NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has been a silent partner on the world stage for more than half of the century and the most successful political-military alliance in history. The United Nations and their peacekeeping efforts have had the spotlight for the past few years. However the driving force behind any successful agreement or, if needed, action on the part of several countries has been because of the strong foundation and experience of NATO and its members. The following report ...
  • E: Futzing Around With Sexual Stereotypes E: Futzing Around With Sexual Stereotypes Futzing Around With Sexual Stereotypes Live Nudes: Futzing Around With Sexual Stereotypes [W]ith neither money nor careers at stake, caution is unnecessary, you can do anything, said Michael Smith, an important figure in the Off Off-Broadway movement, about the glib attitude and openness of Off Off-Broadway Theater. An anything goes attitude was the essence of avant-garde theater. Fittingly, nakedness on stage was not uncommon in the Off Off-Broadway theaters. John Elsom, an expert of erot...
  • N: No title N: No title Emperor Kang-hsi Emperor Kang-hsi ruled China from 1661 to 1722 and his reign is captured by Jonathan D. Spences book Emperor of China. The different chapters of the book deal with certain aspects of the Emperors life. Aspects that the history books to normally deal with. The information in Spences book is based on Emperor Kang-hsis correspondence, his own writings. This writing maybe biased towards himself, but no other piece of information could provide insight into his mind. The book is...
  • N: Aaron Burr treason trial N: Aaron Burr treason trial Aaron Burr treason trial The early 1800s were an unusual time in the history of the United States. A country in its infancy, growing, turbulent, and filled with intrigue where political and economic fortunes were made and lost overnight. While the country was founded on noble ideas---and no doubt these powerful ideas were taken seriously---how such ideas were to be put into practice created fertile ground for personal ambition and interest to be a stronger motivator than the common good. In f...
  • E: The Democratic Republic of Congo E: The Democratic Republic of Congo The Democratic Republic of Congo Formerly known as Zaire, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC) is located in the center of Africa bordered by nine different countries and one territory. (Lerner, 10) The bordering countries are Central African Republic and Sudan at the northern boarder, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Burundi on the eastern boarder, Zambia and Angola directly South of DROC and Congo on the Western boarder. DROC is about one third the size of the United States; consisting of 905,...
  • S: Economics in Asia S: Economics in Asia Economics in Asia PG 109:Global Perspectives on Development Pacific Asias Changing Fortunes in the Global Economy since 1970 Since the mid 1960s, Pacific Asia has had a remarkable rate of economic growth. This growth has been sustainable and faster than all other regions of the world (see fig. 1). This region consists of twenty-three economies but it was just eight who caused most of this amazing growth. The eight were Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, China, (the Four Tiger...
  • S: Catholic Churchs View on Contraception S: Catholic Churchs View on Contraception Catholic Churchs View on Contraception The issue of contraception has been an extremely controversial and debated one in the Catholic Church. The Catholic religion declares that the three requirements for healthy sexual expression include a mutual physical drive for pleasure, intimacy and committed love between the couple, and the openness to procreation and parenting children. This last aspect is the subject of much disagreement between people both inside and outside the church community. The a...
  • Why is Vatican II so Significant in the Modern Chu Why is Vatican II so Significant in the Modern Chu Why is Vatican II so Significant in the Modern Church? Why is Vatican II so Significant in the Modern Church? INTRODUCTION: VATICAN II Vatican II was the 21st ecumenical council recognized by the Roman Catholic church, which became the symbol of the church\'s openness to the modern world. The council was announced by Pope John XXIII on January 25, 1959, and held 178 meetings in the autumn of each of four successive years. The first gathering was on October 11, 1962, and the last on December 8, 1...
  • TURKEYKURDS conflict TURKEYKURDS conflict TURKEYKURDS conflict Turkey\'s key internal conflict centers on the role of its large Kurdish minority, ethnically and linguistically distinct, in a state that constitutionally consists of Turks. This issue has been with Turkey almost since the foundation of the Turkish State in 1923. The Kurds were promised the creation of an independent state as part of the treaty of Sevres in 1920 but this part of the treaty was never ratified and Turkey has refused to recognize the existence of a separate Ku...
  • Adult education in the u.s. Adult education in the u.s. Adult education in the u.s. 1). INTRODUCTION In adult education, The concept of central learning theory is self-directed learning. He (1985) said that because the concept is so central to what adult education is all about, self-directed learning has been one of the field\'s high-interest topics for more than a decade (Mezirow, 1988). Many people like researchers theorists and so on have all asked the pistons: what is self-directed learning? What kinds of people are engaged in it? How can we prop...
  • Aliens Aliens Aliens -- Copyright Information -- 1999 SIRS Mandarin, Inc. -- SIRS Researcher Spring 1999 Title: Scientists: UFO Reports May Be Worth Evaluating Author: Michelle Levander Source: San Jose Mercury News (San Jose, CA) Publication Date: June 28, 1998 Page Number(s): n.p. --------------------------- SAN JOSE MERCURY NEWS (San Jose, Calif.) June 28, 1998, n.p. (c) 1998, Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Distributed by Knight-Ridder/Tribune Information Services. SCIENTISTS: UFO REPORTS MAY BE WORTH EVALUAT...
  • The feuding sisters The feuding sisters The feuding sisters udaism, Christianity and Islam are often referred to as sister religions because they are closely related. However, several pronounced differences tend to alienate the three over the course of history, inducing each to alternate between periods of persecution and tolerance, even to today. Age, founder, population of believers, culture of origin, documentation, and differing views on the Messiah all factor in determining the differences and similarities between these three w...
  • Sun Also Rises Sun Also Rises Sun Also Rises The Sun Also Rises The Sun Also Rises is a brilliant book written by Ernest Hemingway, that illustrates the decadence during the 1920s. Throughout the book Hemingway expresses at the time an illegal habit in America, alcoholic drinking. He also displays the beginning of open sexual/physical contact, flirting with more than one person, and having more than one sexual partner. Hemingways characters shows decry in their work habits. Throughout the book Hemingway displays many examp...
  • Essentials of Business Management Essentials of Business Management Essentials of Business Management When Sam Walton opened the first Wal-Mart store in 1962, it was the beginning of an American success story that no one could have predicted. A small-town merchant who had operated variety stores in Arkansas and Missouri, Walton was convinced that consumers would flock to a discount store with a wide array of merchandise and friendly service. Hence, Wal-Mart\'s mission is to deliver big-city discounting to small-town America. From humble, hard-working roots, Sam ...
  • The Cultural Narcissist The Cultural Narcissist The Cultural Narcissist Sam Vaknin\'s Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites The new narcissist is haunted not by guilt but by anxiety. He seeks not to inflict his own certainties on others but to find a meaning in life. Liberated from the superstitions of the past, he doubts even the reality of his own existence. Superficially relaxed and tolerant, he finds little use for dogmas of racial and ethnic purity but at the same time forfeits the security of group loyalties a...
  • Contemporary Taiwan Contemporary Taiwan Contemporary Taiwan The process of liberalization and democratization increased in Taiwan throughout the 1980s. The government\'s new openness included the recognition of some of its past actions, such as the Nationalist government\'s massacre of thousands of native Taiwanese in 1947. Although friction has lessened between the island Chinese, who make up about 85% of the population, and those who came from the mainland, it has remained a problem. Martial law, in effect since 1949, was lifted in ...
  • The Awakening The Awakening The Awakening The Awakening opens in the late 1800s in Grand Isle, a summer holiday resort popular with the wealthy inhabitants of nearby New Orleans. Edna Pontellier is vacationing with her husband, Leonce, and their two sons at the cottages of Madame Lebrun, which house affluent Creoles from the French Quarter. Leonce is kind and loving but preoccupied with his work. His frequent business-related absences mar his domestic life with Edna. Consequently, Edna spends most of her time with her frie...
  • Transformation of Marriage Transformation of Marriage :Transformation of Marriage: Abstract The marriage revolution has been a controversial issue since the dawn of time, and all that are and have been involved with matrimony are aware of the issues of the future. There can be no denying that the culture of marriage has changed. This very course is itself a great example of this fact. Much like any other sociological subject of any real concern, there are many opinions related to this issue. This paper will attempt to highlight marriage seen as ...
  • Globalisation: Friend Or Foe Globalisation: Friend Or Foe Globalisation: Friend Or Foe Dramatic Changes have taken place in Sydney\'s cultural and economic landscapes during the past two decades. These changing landscapes have been linked in both political discourse and the popular press to Sydney\'s emerging role as a global city\'. Evidence supporting this theory has come from some academic analyses of globalisation in the 1990s. Global cities are identified by their role as command centers for organising the global economy. Such cities have been ...
  • Skoda Auto Skoda Auto Skoda Auto Skoda Auto The story of Skoda is one of struggle and success. Skoda enjoys a century-long history of motor vehicle manufacturing in a small town in the Czech Republic, about sixty kilometers outside the cultural and tourist center of Prague. Despite early achievements, times became much harder during the former socialist era. The physical plant fell into disrepair and quality declined. However, this tale in one of transformation, and Skoda has once again become very successful in a jo...
  • Diversity Diversity Diversity Introduction Diversity relates to gender, age, language, ethnicity, cultural background, disability, sexual orientation or religious belief. Diversity also refers to the myriad ways we are different in other respects such as educational level, job function, socio-economic background, personality profile, geographic location, marital status and whether or not one has family. I have taken the opportunity to explain my perception of age, gender, personality and ethnic types of diversity a...
  • Drawing Down The Moon Drawing Down The Moon Drawing Down The Moon Introduction I chose to read the book Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today, by Margot Adler, because I myself am a practicing Wiccan. I began following this religion the summer before I entered high school. I have read many books on my religion, and I thought that this one would compliment the knowledge that I have on the subject. I was raised a Roman Catholic, but I never felt truly comfortable with the teachings of...
  • The idea of facades across a range of texts The idea of facades across a range of texts The idea of facades across a range of texts The poem The Ballad of Calvary Street\' by James Baxter, the film American Beauty\' (directed by Sam Mendes and released in 1999), and the play An Inspector Calls\' written by J.B. Priestley and performed at Circa Theatre in 2005, are all texts that share a similar theme. Although these three texts are different in terms of authorship and the medium through which the significant messages are communicated, what the texts do have in common is th...
  • In A Separate Peace by John Knowels, the value of In A Separate Peace by John Knowels, the value of In A Separate Peace by John Knowels, the value of dealing with your feelings and dealing with your enemies is shown by Gene Forester, a student in Devon during World War 2 dealing with few human enemies, but his emotions create a circumstance far greater than any human enemy. I never killed anybody, Gene had commented later in his adulthood, And I never developed an intense level of hatred for the enemy Gene had put many enemies into his own life. Gene had a best friend, his name was Finny, they...