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openness NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has been a silent partner on the world
stage for more than half of the century and the most successful
political-military alliance in history. The United Nations and their
peacekeeping efforts have had the spotlight for the past few years. However the
driving force behind any successful agreement or, if needed, action on the part
of several countries has been because of the strong foundation and experience of
NATO and its members. The following report will chronicle the events leading up
to the creation of NATO, its first decade, the constant struggle with communism
in the decades that proceed, and finally the challenges for NATO today and in
the future. In the years after World War II, a new threat encroached upon the
leaders of Western Europe and their hopes of a stable peace. This threat would
be from the growing dominance of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
in Eastern Europe. The USSR had an increasing appetite for the smaller countries
to her west. These aggressive demands for territory and the placing of
installations in taken countries fueled the fears of many that the USSR was
marching toward a third world war. Britain and France, not wanting to make the
mistake again of appeasing this new menace until it was too late, developed the
Dunkirk Treaty in 1947. This treaty in essence pledged a common defense against
any aggression. The USSR answered this by creating a European Communist
organization called the Cominform and it rejected the European Recovery Program,
which is commonly known as the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan, named for the
US Secretary of State, was basically a financial bailout for the European
nations. These nations were starving because of the slow and near stopping of
the coal and agricultural industries after WWII. The US offered millions of
dollars to all of Europe to aid in rebuilding for four reasons. First, Europe
had been a great marketplace imports and exports for the US. Second,
historically West Germany had been an industrial hub and needed to be brought
back to tip-top shape to buffer the expanding USSR. Third, with its increasing
mass the USSR was becoming a rival to the US. Lastly, without this aid Western
Europe might look to the USSR for help, which would make life a lot tougher for
American interests. The year of 1948 was pivotal for Europe. In February, the
Communists in Prague staged a coup detat and the spring brought the beginning
of the Cold War. Immediately after WWII, Germany was divided in to occupation
zones by Britain, France, the US, and USSR. The capital of Germany at the time
was Berlin, which happened to fall in the Soviet zone. The governing
administration located in Berlin fell, because of the obvious reason of too
many cooks spoil the broth. When this happened, the USSR demanded that Berlin
become solely part of the Soviet zone, since its status as capital was ruined.
The USSR enforced this ruling by blockading all land routes into and tried to
force the other powers out of its respective sectors of Berlin. Eventually the
Berlin Blockade was squelched by a military airlift that lasted the rest of the
year. The city still remained divided and became known as East (Soviet
controlled) and West Berlin. This transgression on the part of the USSR prompted
negotiations between Western Europe, the US and Canada that resulted in the
North Atlantic Treaty. The language of the North Atlantic Treaty originally
consisted of its preamble and fourteen articles. The preamble states that
members will promote common values and will unite their efforts for a
collective defense. The key article of the North Atlantic Treaty is number
five (its the one that inspired my title) it reads, The Parties agree that
an armed attack against one or more of themshall be considered an attack
against them all. Another interesting article is the last one, number
fourteen, and it calls for the deposition of the official copies of the treaty
to be kept in the US Archives. The US already was establishing itself as the
dominant member of an organization that is supposed to be based on equal
responsibility. After the ratification of this treaty the structure of the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) began. The highest policy-making body in
NATO is the North Atlantic Council, which met in Paris until 1967. The council
composed of permanent delegates from all members was responsible for general
policy, budgetary outlines, intergovernmental consultation and administrative
actions. There are two main temporary committees ... more

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Futzing Around With Sexual Stereotypes


Live Nudes: Futzing Around With Sexual Stereotypes

[W]ith neither money nor careers at stake, caution is unnecessary, you can do anything, said Michael Smith, an important figure in the Off Off-Broadway movement, about the glib attitude and openness of Off Off-Broadway Theater.  An anything goes attitude was the essence of avant-garde theater.  Fittingly, nakedness on stage was not uncommon in the Off Off-Broadway theaters.  John Elsom, an expert of eroticism in the theater, stated, nakedness meant freedom: clothes and respectability -- tyranny (200).  Homosexuality was even more commonplace and seemed to be considered fashionable by these avant-garde artists.  The mere existence of radical Off Off-Broadway Theater served as a catalyst for more open sexuality, especially nakedness on stage, homosexuality, and the involvement of women in theater and popular culture.  In Rochelle Owenss play Futz, the shock value is bestiality.  Cy Futz openly loves his sow, Amanda, and his society does not accept this and persecutes him.  Owens uses bestiality to represent a lifestyle that an individual leads that is not accepted by society, like homosexuality, and the ridiculous persecution by society for a lifestyle that is different than normal.  Futz embodies three distinct aspects of avant-garde theater in New York: the emergence of nudity on stage, the surfacing of homosexuality in the arts, and the liberation of women; Futz manifests the changing political and social attitudes of the times.
Nudity and erotic messages were used to shock the audience, very much like Antonin Artaud, whose techniques and theories influenced the development of avant-garde theater.  Stavros Kolliopoulos says in his article about Artaud that he sought to establish a physical language without transcendental references, directing his fury against society in a state of constant confrontation.   Artaud saw theater as a primal force and believed in the expression of primitivism in his work (Harding 60).  The importance of nakedness had two distinct motives, yet only the second pertains to Owens play.  These moments of nudity caused exposure for the performance, but more importantly, nakedness symbolized a rejection of middle-class standards (Elsom 200).  Owens, by the mere fact that she was involved with Off Off-Broadway Theater, was rejecting middle-class standards.  She was not, on the other hand, using sexuality and nudity to cause exposure, for popular success was of little importance to her and to Off Off-Broadway as a whole.  Futz and all of Off Off-Broadway was a reaction against mass-marketing and monotonous commercialism.  Emory Lewis wrote in his chronology of theater that most of the young, fearless explorers start off with the radical premise that there is another America and another culture conveniently ignored by the mass media; they are in absolute revolt against the Establishment and those they regard as its brainwashed followers (138-9).  This movement embodied the many protests of the time, and it manifested the doing-your-own-thing aspect of the counterculture revolution.  Of course an institution built and prided on such a removal from consumer society would include nudity and sex.  The novelty of nakedness on stage wore thin when nudity became more of a crucial aspect to other mediums of entertainment, such as film and nowadays, nudity on stage and in film is ordinary and has no apparent shock value.
Tom OHorgans work, most specifically Futz, became famous because of its scandalous nature of the sexual-erotic content, the seemingly orgiastic physicality, and the occasional near or full nudity (Aronson 96).  Tom OHorgan was the original director for Futz in Ellen Stewarts La Mama Experimental Theater Club.  OHorgan gained notoriety from his work in the first ever rock opera, Hair.  OHorgan followed four elements to his direction (Berkowitz 146).  First, he attempted to de-emphasize the text and concentrate on the performance and the emotion of the live actors.  Second, he had his characters communicate nonverbally at times and explored nonrational communication.  Third, he tried to make the audience and the actors interact, thus breaking down the fourth wall.  Finally, he tried to utilize all aspects of the theater and the current technology.  He used all of these aspects in his production of Futz.  At times during OHorgans performances the actors became vulnerable, stopped acting, and were naked for the audience to see.  The fourth wall had been broken down, ... more

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