On Pollution Prevention


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on pollution prevention Acid Rain

Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain.                                            CAUSES         Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United States. In Canada, the main sulphuric acid sources are non-ferrous smelters and power generation. On both sides of the border, cars and trucks are the main sources for nitric acid(about 40% of the total), while power generating plants and industrial commercial and residential fuel combustion together contribute most of the rest. In the air, the sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can be transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid, and air current can send them thousands of kilometres from the source.When the acids fall to the earth in any form it will have large impact on the growth or the preservation of certain wildlife.                            NO DEFENCE  Areas in Ontario mainly southern regions that are near the Great Lakes, such substances as limestone or other known antacids can neutralize acids entering the body of water thereby protecting it. However, large areas of Ontario that are near the Pre-Cambrian Shield, with quartzite or granite based geology and little top soil, there is not enough buffering capacity to neutralize even small amounts of acid falling on the soil and the lakes. Therefore over time, the basic environment shifts from an alkaline to a acidic one. This is why many lakes in the Muskoka, Haliburton, Algonquin, Parry Sound and Manitoulin districts could lose their fisheries if sulphur emissions are not reduced substantially.                                ACID   The average mean of pH rainfall in Ontario's Muskoka-Haliburton lake country ranges between 3.95 and 4.38 about 40 times more acidic than normal rainfall, while storms in Pennsilvania have rainfall pH at 2.8 it almost has the same rating for vinegar.    Already 140 Ontario lakes are completely dead or dying. An additional 48 000 are sensitive and vulnerable to acid rain due to the surrounding concentrated acidic soils.                                 ACID RAIN CONSISTS OF....?  Canada does not have as many people, power plants or automobiles as the United States, and yet acid rain there has become so severe that Canadian government officials called it the most pressing environmental issue facing the nation. But it is important to bear in mind that acid rain is only one segment, of the widespread pollution of the atmosphere facing the world. Each year the global atmosphere is on the receiving end of 20 billion tons of carbon dioxide, 130 million tons of suffer dioxide, 97 million tons of hydrocarbons, 53 million tons of nitrogen oxides, more than three million tons of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc and other toxic metals, and a host of  synthetic organic compounds ranging from polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) to toxaphene and other pesticides, a number of which may be capable of causing cancer, birth defects, or genetic imbalances.                          COST OF ACID RAIN     Interactions of pollutants can cause problems. In addition to contributing to acid rain, nitrogen oxides can react with hydrocarbons to produce ozone, a major air pollutant responsible in the United States for annual losses of $2 billion to 4.5 billion worth of wheat, corn, soyabeans, and peanuts. A wide range of interactions can occur many unknown with toxic metals.     In Canada, Ontario alone has lost the fish in an estimated 4000 lakes and provincial authorities calculate that Ontario stands to lose the fish in 48 500 more lakes within the next twenty years if acid rain continues at the present rate.Ontario is not alone, on Nova Scotia's Eastern most shores, almost every river flowing to the Atlantic Ocean is poisoned with acid. Further threatening a $2 million a year fishing industry.                                   THE DYING Acid rain is killing more than lakes. It can scar the leaves of hardwood forest, wither ferns and lichens, accelerate the death of coniferous needles, sterilize seeds, and weaken the forests to a state that is vulnerable to disease infestation and decay. In ... more

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Garbage problem in USA




Can America Win its Battle with Garbage?
Today’s generation have been taught to be wasteful.  We produce enormous quantities of waste, then try to bury it or burn it and forget it.  But it cannot be forgotten.  It washes up on our beaches, it reappears as air pollution, it creeps into our water supply; it comes back to haunt us.  A throw-away society is not a sustainable society.
A garbage crisis is at hand.  As a nation, we have begun to worry that the growing mounds of wastes will only continue to increase as the means of disposal become further restricted.  Government agencies and public officials are urgently trying to find a solution.  The waste dilemma has become the centerpiece of the politics of garbage.
The mood of the crisis manifests itself in countless ways, including attempts to export the problem, here or abroad.  Numerous municipalities, counties, and states, particularly those with heavier concentrations of industry and greater urban density, have attempted to send their waste to less dense, often poorer areas.  This has created a garbage war between states.  California seeks to dispose in Arizona, New York looks to Vermont, and Minnesota makes a move on Iowa.   New Jersey, especially, has been an active exporter, probing the possibilities of dumping its waste in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia.  These states though constrained by the commerce clause of the Constitution, have nevertheless sought to pass legislation to halt New Jersey’s aggressive export policy.
But it is the city of Philadelphia and the saga of its ash barge that provides perhaps the striking example of this form of garbage imperialism.  During the 1980s, Philadelphia sought to rely on incineration to reduce the amount of its municipal trash embarked for distant landfills.  As a consequence, local officials were stuck with a new, and more difficult problem:  how to dispose of the city’s incinerator-generated ash, particularly after residents sued to compel the city to remove thousands of tons of ash residue piled up near the city’s main incinerators.  Some of the ash had been shipped to Virginia, Ohio and other states, but it was rejected because of local protests.  With its land-based disposal options under attack, the city finally arranged with two private companies to ship the ash abroad.  A cargo ship named the Khian Sea traveled all around the world and not one country would let the ash be disposed of in their land.  The ash barge after a long time voyage eventually dumped the ash in the Indian Ocean.
The Philadelphia experience has become the rule rather than the exception in the costly and sometimes bizarre search to dump the trash.  Exporting scandals—in which incinerator ash or other wastes are either unloaded illegally or under questionable circumstances—have taken place in a number of African and Latin American countries, such as Nigeria and Guinea-Bissau, and even in England, which has become a haven for garbage, because of its relatively lax standards.
The solid waste dilemma is not limited to the issue of garbage export.  It ultimately raises questions about the source, volume, and nature of the wastes that are being generated.  Policy-makers have placed a special emphasis on disposal technologies as they seek a solution they hope will be sufficiently risk-free and cost-effective.
Despite the enormous industrial changes of the early 1900s and the resulting growth and change in the waste stream, the garbage issue appeared to be under control.  Solid waste management continued to be an exercise in developing new, more comprehensive disposal technologies, primarily land based.  Land disposal offered a number of advantages.  The availability of cheap real estate at the outskirts of the growing cities and suburbs of the 1940s and 1950s allowed such methods to be developed at a relatively low cost.  This abundant underdeveloped land also meant, it was assumed, that landfills could easily handle any increase in volume brought by a rapidly changing waste stream.  By expanding landfill capacity, public officials assumed they could ignore waste generation issues.  Expanding landfills became a yardstick of productivity.  
Most landfills in this period were little more than open pits.  By the end of the 1950s, policy makers began promoting a more refined, and presumably environmentally benign, method of disposal, the sanitary ... more

on pollution prevention

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  •  : Garbage problem in USA : Garbage problem in USA Garbage problem in USA Can America Win its Battle with Garbage? Todays generation have been taught to be wasteful. We produce enormous quantities of waste, then try to bury it or burn it and forget it. But it cannot be forgotten. It washes up on our beaches, it reappears as air pollution, it creeps into our water supply; it comes back to haunt us. A throw-away society is not a sustainable society. A garbage crisis is at hand. As a nation, we have begun to worry that the growing mounds of wastes...
  • P: Wetland Policy P: Wetland Policy Wetland Policy Introduction The issue of wetland conservation and policy has long been an issue of controversy among interest groups and industry. When observing the number of endangered or threatened species that inhabit wetlands it is apparent that there is a pressing need to conserve them, especially when the leading cause of species loss is habitat destruction (Nowlan and Jeffries, 1996). There is currently in place a system of policies and laws which culminate to create a relatively effecti...
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  • T: AIDS Related Stigma T: AIDS Related Stigma AIDS Related Stigma Since the appearance of AIDS in the late seventies and early eighties, the disease has had attached to it a significant social stigma. This stigma has manifested itself in the form of discrimination, avoidance and fear of people living with AIDS (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease has been extended from those of other life threatening conditions to the point at which PLWAs are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and consta...
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