On His Bench


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on his bench Breaks

HYDRAULIC BRAKES
Brake Hydraulic System Principles & Service Tips.
Author/s: Bob Freudenberger
Issue: Sept-Oct, 1999
Everyone who works on brakes MUST know these concepts and procedures
In the early days of the automobile, some very clever engineering was employed to apply brakes mechanically. For example, the Italian Bugatti routed the cables over the top of the front axle so that the twisting action generated by stopping added force to the shoe cam lever.
No matter how ingenious the design, however, there was always a major drawback: Nothing could insure that braking force would be exactly equal at any pair of wheels, so there was a good chance that stepping on the pedal would cause swerving and skidding. This made the idea of hydraulically actuated brakes attractive--according to Pascal's Law, pressure at all points in a closed hydraulic system must necessarily be the same--but it took many years to develop dependable systems. The first car of any consequence to carry four-wheel hydraulic brakes was the. 1921 Dusenberg of the U.S.
Basic idea
On the most basic level, all brake hydraulic systems share the same principle: Muscle strength amplified by leverage and perhaps a power booster displaces fluid from the master cylinder and causes pressure to increase all through the circuits. This overcomes the retracting springs in drums and the seals' elasticity in disc calipers and pushes the friction material against the rotating member.
That much is obvious, but the subtleties of modern designs that provide proper performance in the real world deserve some explanation. Hence this article, which also includes important service information every mechanic should know about.
Dual master
Although it has been in use for decades all over the world, the dual (also called "split" or "tandem") master cylinder is still widely misunderstood, so we had better explain its construction and operation. A typical late-model specimen will be of the composite variety (aluminum with a plastic reservoir), but iron one-piece units are still around in abundance. Two pistons ride in the bore, and here is where we encounter some confusing terminology. The rear piston is the primary, and the one in the front is the secondary. This apparent misnaming resulted because the rear piston is the first to receive the force of the driver's leg.
Each piston has a primary seal at its front and a secondary at its rear, so you will be hearing such combinations as primary piston secondary seal, secondary piston secondary seal, etc. The primary seals are the most important because they trap the fluid that is about to be squeezed into the lines. The primary piston's secondary seal keeps fluid from escaping out of the back of the cylinder (commonly into a booster), and the secondary piston's secondary seal acts as a barrier to make two essentially separate cylinders out of one.
In normal braking, the push rod from the pedal or booster forces the primary piston forward. No pressure is created until the primary seal covers the compensating or vent port from the reservoir. Once it does, fluid is trapped in the chamber between the pistons and becomes, for all intents and purposes, a solid column. Pressure is routed from this chamber to two wheels. The trapped fluid and the primary piston coil spring both bear on the secondary piston, moving it forward and creating pressure in the chamber ahead of the secondary piston's primary seal, to which the line to the other two wheels is attached.

Continued from page 1
When the pedal is released, a partial vacuum occurs in both pressure chambers because the fluid's inertia and viscosity prevent it from returning from the lines immediately. In order to re-arm the brakes instantaneously, the primary seals are designed to allow fluid to flow one way (forward) from behind each seal into the pressure chambers.
The replenishing ports allow fluid to move freely between the chambers behind both pistons' primary cups and the reservoir according to demand and expansion and contraction from temperature changes.
Second chance
If a hose should rupture or one of the brake lines should become perforated from corrosion resulting in a catastrophic loss of fluid in half the system, the other half will still provide a means of decelerating the vehicle, albeit with a lower pedal and reduced stopping power.
Both pistons have extensions which project out ... more

on his bench

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Against Still Life

In the poem Against Still Life, poet Margaret Atwood fascinates us by weaving
her words into descriptive feelings we can all relate too, especially women.
Atwood is a well known poet and novelist who has a certain way of grabbing the
attention of the reader and throwing the readers thoughts around without her
even realizing it. In Against Still Life for example, Atwood opens her poem with
an orange, nothing more than an orange. By the end of the poem she has got the
reader pondering what men think about. It is assumed that Atwood is the speaker
of the poem and the setting is simply a situation most of us can find ourselves
in often. The speaker of the poem is Margaret Atwood herself. She describes
thoughts that would only belong to her. Atwood uses the word I to describe
herself in the poem and you to describe a second party other than the
reader, who we later find to be a man. The poem, seems as though it is directed
as a thought to the man, not a conversation or a poem for him to read, but
Atwoods desire to know this mans thoughts. Atwood is clever, and describes
feelings and the frustrations that any woman has felt about a man. This makes us
really wonder if Atwood truly feels this way, or if she is just describing
feelings that a general woman have about a general man. I believe Atwood did
this on purpose not only to more easily relate to the reader but because she
once said in a lecture, Plato said that poets should be excluded from the
ideal republic because they are such liars. I am a poet, and I affirm that this
is true. About no subject are poets tempted to lie so much as about their own
lives I of course -- being also a novelist -- am a much more truthful person
than that. But since poets lie, how can you believe me? (Atwood). This
suggests that maybe Atwood doesnt really feel this way about a man, she could
have made the whole thing up simply to please and relate to her readers, but
then again, she could be telling the truth. Atwoods attitude in the poem is
very demanding and unknowing. She is a woman who wants answers about a man. She
is having a hard time understanding this man and wants to know whats going on
inside his head. This happens to describe Atwood perfectly because she once said
her husband (who is also a writer) was [b]etter than a dentist. At least
another writer knows why you are being so strange. And you can take long
vacations (Author Profile). In the poem, Atwood compares an orange to the
man. It is said that Atwood often writes of food in her publications because she
feels as though women have come to feel uncomfortable with themselves and food.
"Atwood probes the prohibitions on the public display of female appetite
and the social taboos which surround women and food in terms of the politics of
eating" (Parker). I believe Atwood does this to make herself and the reader
feel more comfortable with the frustrations she describes. She can only see the
outside of the orange in the same way that she can only see the outside of the
man. But she wants more than that, I want to pick it up in my hand I want to
peel the skin off; I want more to be said to me than just Orange: want to be
told everything it has to say (Muller 255). She wants to know all she can
about the man, and it is driving her crazy not knowing whats really going on
inside that head of his. There is a constant battle in our world; men want to
know how women really work and think, and women want to know what men really
work and think. Atwood even mentions that she knows the man is thinking the same
thing she is, and she wants to make him say it out load. [M]ake me want to
wrench you into saying: now Id crack your skull like a walnut, split it like
a pumpkin to make you talk, or get a look inside (Muller 256). She knows that
this man has the same thoughts about her. She knows that he has this
overwhelming desire to understand her by knowing everything and anything about
her. It frustrates her even more ... more

on his bench

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