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I dont care if the cat is black or white, I just want it to kill the mice. - Deng Xiaoping.
Deng Xiaoping has been the individual with the most impact on China since the 1970s. Along with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, he is looked at as one of the key figures in evolution of communism in China . Deng Xiaoping will be remembered as a national hero, but this was not always the case. The real story of Deng includes the fact that, on more than one occasion, his peers ostracized him. During his lifetime he has been a part of the many changes in China throughout the twentieth century. He was by Mao Zedongs side through all of the struggles of the Chinese Communist Party; battling with Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang over and over, and surviving Mao in order to change China and enter a new era. His most recent accomplishments, those being of economic reform and opening China more and more to the West, an important step in this day and age, may have been his greatest. His life has been a paradoxical one of ease and struggle, but as they say, that goes with the territory.
The purpose of this essay is twofold. It is a means to reflect upon the accomplishments and failures of a man who has influenced todays China; and to present it all in an interesting, yet refreshingly honest way. I will look at three aspects of Deng Xiaopings life: First, the story of his youth and family, from when he was born until his return from France and Moscow, 1927. Second, a look at his beginnings in the Chinese Communist Party from 1927 to 1949, its struggle, and his rise. And finally, a look at his recent accomplishments and failures and what they have done for the Peoples Republic of China.
The Young Deng: 1904-1927
Deng Xiaoping was born on August 22nd, 1904, in Paifang, a village in Sichuan province near the town of Guangan. His name at birth was Deng Xixian, which he subsequently changed when he became a young revolutionary. His father, Deng Wenming, was a small landowner who has been described as energetic, sanguine, and gregarious . His mother, Dan Shideng, was the second wife of Dengs father. Deng himself was the second child borne of his mother, and he was the eldest son. Dengs family roots are quite interesting in themselves. His ancestors had moved to Sichuan from the south some 200 years before Dengs birth. His ancestors were Hakka, or Hill People, the same as another notoriously famous person in Chinese history, Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion. However, the family had shaken their Hakka roots well before the time of Dengs birth. Another ancestor, Deng Shimin, held a high rank under Qianlong, whos name you might remember in relation to the Opium Wars. His father was a member of the Society of Elder Brothers, one of the oldest and strongest of Chinese secret societies and he also was a key member of the Faith of the Five Brothers, a Taoist-Buddhist society. Through these connections, Yang Sen, a local warlord, gave him a prominent military post in the area. It was Yang Sen and Deng Weiming that decided that young Deng Xiaoping go study in France.
Deng arrived in France in 1920, just barely two years after the First World War. While it was easy for the wealthy Chinese to study in France, less well off people had to find employment in order to study. Work, however, was not easy to find and so Deng went through a variety of unskilled labour positions while he went to school where he learned about a variety of things, including communism.
Deng rose quickly through the ranks of Chinese Communism in France. In 1923, he was elected leader of the Communist Youth Party of China, and in 1924 he was elected as a member-at-large of the Chinese Communist Party in Europe. He also worked among the Guomindang, the Chinese Nationalist Party as a supervisory delegate in 1926.
In January of 1926, Deng Xiaoping left for Russia. If Deng wanted to amount to anything in the Chinese Communist Party, he had ... more
Find essay on Of Parkinson S Disease
Awakenings and Tourette
In the 1920's, Leonard Lowe is a normal ten year old boy who is attacked by a mysteriously crippling disease. The onset of the disease manifests itself in periods of what I can only term suspended animation. At one moment, the victim is engaging in a normal activity, and at another he appears to be a living statue. Early in the disease, these periods of suspension last anywhere from a few moments to a few hours, and eventually, the victim is trapped seemingly forever in the statue phase. Only certain specific outside stimuli obtains a physical reaction, such as catching a ball or walking.
When the movie begins, they show Leonard to us as a normal and seemingly healthy ten year old boy who is afflicted with the "sleeping sickness" disease that reached epidemic proportions during that specific era. Like many others who contracted this illness, Leonard and those like him were often misdiagnosed and eventually placed in mental hospital facilities because of their apparent vegetative state. Doctors who worked on the earlier cases believed the patients mental faculties to have been destroyed by the illness.
Dr. Sayer (Dr. Oliver Sacks in real life) discovers that certain vegetative patients reacted to outside stimuli, such as a pattern on a floor, a tossed ball, or a television with a maladjusted vertical hold. Finally, Dr. Sayer comes across Leonard as a middle-aged man, some thirty years after he was originally afflicted with the disease. After doing some tests, the doctor comes to realize that there is brain activity and convinces his colleagues that further tests should be considered. He theorizes that a newly developed drug, L-Dopa, developed for the treatment of Parkinson's patients may benefit these patients. He doses Leonard, with no initial success. Once again he theorizes that the acid in the Orange Juice, which he had been giving with the medicine may actually be neutralizing the effects of the drug. He tries once more with milk, and obtains some rather startling results. The drug has not only succeeded in obtaining a reaction from the patient, but seemingly it has brought him completely out of his "comatose" condition. The doctor discovers him in the patient's lounge area coloring in a coloring book. Unfortunately for Leonard, he is completely unaware that he is no longer ten years old.
What Dr. Sacks discovered is what we today call Tourette's Syndrome. Tourette's Syndrome is an inherited, neurological disorder characterized by repeated and involuntary body movements (tics) and uncontrollable vocal sounds. In a small amount of cases, the vocalizations can include socially inappropriate words and phrases -- called coprolalia.
These outbursts are neither intentional nor purposeful. Involuntary symptoms can included eye blinking, repeated throat clearing or sniffing, arm thrusting, kicking movements, shoulder shrugging or jumping.
These and other symptoms typically appear before the age of 18 and the condition occurs in all ethnic groups with males affected 3 to 4 times more often than females. Although the symptoms of TS vary from person to person and range from very mild to severe, the majority of cases fall into the mild category. Associated conditions can include obsessivity, attention problems and impulsiveness.
Most people with TS lead productive lives and participate in all professions. For example, Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf (formerly Chris Jackson) is the leading free throw shooter in the NBA. A guard on the Denver Nuggets, he came to the NBA from Louisiana State University where he was an instant sensation, scoring 48 points in his third game. Abdul-Rauf is featured in an independent documentary "Twitch & Shout" produced by two film makers with TS. It is said that Mahmoud's obsessive-compulsive TS traits are the reason for his unbelievable proficiency at the foul line. Increased public understanding and tolerance of TS symptoms are of paramount importance to people with Tourette Syndrome.
Before Tourette's Syndrome was recognized as a disease, the effects could be as bad as Leonards. The early effects of this disease included living as a statue and only moving when approached by specific stimuli. This is the form of Tourette Syndrome depicted with in the movie Awakenings.
The tics associated with Tourette's Syndrome can cause a extreme amount of psychological problems such as feelings ... more
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