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Manufacture In Scotland Today


Word Count: 1425


Contents

Contents pagePage 1

IntroductionPage 2

ElectronicsPage 3

SemiconductorsPage 5

AerospacePage 6

AutomotivePage 7

ConclusionPage 8

ReferencesPage 9

Manufacturing In Scotland Today

Introduction

This report is not so much on the state of the manufacturing industry in Scotland but rather of its current success. Scottish productivity consistently ranks among the highest worldwide and multinational companies have expanded their presence in Scotland to capitalise on this.

Due to the extent of the manufacturing industry in Scotland I am going to focus on four areas these being: Electronics, Semiconductors, Aerospace and Automotive manufacture. Other major areas of manufacture in Scotland include Biotechnology (which I will touch upon later), Food (with annual sales totalling £7.3 billion) and Textiles.

Scotland is the home to around 550 electronics companies including multinational giants such as IBM, Compaq, Motorola, Matsushita and Phillips. Scotland also has one of the highest concentrations of semiconductor fabrication companies in Europe including NEC, Motorola, National Semiconductors and Raytheon Systems. While the Scottish aerospace industry comprises of 52 companies including BAE Aerostructures, GEC Marconi Radar and Control Systems, Greenwich Caledonian, Rohr, Bond Helicopters and Woodward Governor and it has world-class expertise in electronics, plastics and aluminium founding, all of which are increasingly important in automotive manufacture.

All these companies chose Scotland. Home to Europe's most experienced electronics work-force the Scots are known worldwide for their work ethic, as well as for their skills and initiative they are praised for low turnover rates, low absenteeism, and high levels of responsiveness to training and new technologies. Partly this can be put down to Scotlands educational system which places particular emphasis on electrical engineering, science, mathematics and computer-related studies. Also producing more engineering graduates per capita than all other EU nations.

Scotland also offers the ideal location for companies requiring access to the European market through access to Europe in a matter of hours with its modern airports, motorways, deep water seaports and advanced rail freight connections with Europe.



Electronics

The so called Silicon Glen area of Central Scotland is one of the most concentrated areas of electronics activity in Europe. Home to many companies from America, Japan, as well as European multi-nationals and of course independent  Scottish companies.

Many leading electronics companies have operations in Scotland, including IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Canon, Compaq, Packard Bell, NEC, Sun Microsystems and Mitsubishi. Altogether they employ 41,000 people, with another 29,900 supporting directly. Total product sales of the Scottish electronics sector amounted to £15.5 billion in 1996 with Scotland producing:

32% of personal computers made in Europe,
more than 7% of the worlds PCs,
80% of Europe's workstations,
29% of Europes notebooks and
65% of Europe's automated banking machines.

Optoelectronics

Electrical and optical engineering is Scotlands largest manufacturing area representing 23% of the countries total manufacturing.

Scotland is a world leader in optoelectronics with the likes of Pilkington Optronics a major developer in military optical systems including periscopes, military laser range finders and thermal imaging systems. GEC Marconi avionics also use their military expertise in laser targeting and guidance systems. Edinburgh Instruments manufacture all kinds of state of the art lasers. VLSI Vision have developed a new single-chip video camera which is being used used in security systems, medical and automotive products not to mention personal computers and children's toys. Microlase also develop lasers for use in biotechnology and semiconductor research.











Telecommunications

Scotland is home to four of the worlds top ten telecommunications companies including Motorola, Cisco, Lucent and 3Com. Motorola a world leader in portable communications systems operates from Scotland manufacturing a wide range of products, including mobile phones, for the European market. Hewlett-Packard also who have been operating a plant in Scotland for over 30 years where they manufacture products for testing telecommunications systems.

Information Systems

Scotland has been at the forefront of the global information systems industry for over 40 years with leading companies like NCR, Honeywell and IBM all of which take advantage of the countries solid support infrastructure and communications links to serve the markets of Europe and beyond.

Scotland produces Personal computers, including desktop and laptop models. Processing systems, such as electronic funds transfer and automatic teller machines. Peripherals, including display monitors, keyboards, printers and data communication products. Support products, such as disk drives, cable harnesses and switched-mode supplies.

Also the Scottish software industry has a turnover of £1.5 billion and employs around 20,000 people.

Semiconductors

Scotlands semiconductor ... more

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Business Ethics



[Category]:

Business

[Paper Title]:

 

[Text]:

Business Ethics

 

 

>From a business perspective, working under government contracts can be a
very lucrative proposition. In general, a stream of orders keep coming in,
revenue increases and the company grows in the aggregate. The obvious downfalls
to working in this manner is both higher quality expected as well as the
extensive research and documentation required for government

contracts. If a part fails to perform correctly it can cause minor glitches
as well as problems that can carry serious repercussions, such as in the
National Semiconductor case. When both the culpable component and company are
found, the question arises of how extensive these

repercussions should be. Is the company as an entity liable or do you look
into individual employees within that company? From an ethical perspective one
would have to look at the mitigating factors of both the employees and their
superiors along with the role of others in the failure of these components. Next
you would have to analyze the final ruling from a corporate perspective and then
we must examine the macro issue of corporate responsibility in order to attempt
to find a resolution for cases like these.

 

 

The first mitigating factor involved in the National Semiconductor case is
the uncertainty, on the part of the employees, on the duties that they were
assigned. It is plausible that during the testing procedure, an employee couldnt
distinguish which parts they were to test under government standards and
commercial standards. In some cases they might have even been misinformed on the
final consumers of the products that they tested. In fact, ignorance on the part
of the employees would fully excuse them from any moral responsibility for any
damage that may result from their work. Whether it is decided that an employees
is fully excused, or is given some moral responsibility, would have to be looked
at on an individual basis.

 

 

The second mitigating factor is the duress or threats that an employee might
suffer if they do not follow through with their assignment. After the bogus
testing was completed in the National Semiconductor labs, the documentation
department also had to falsify documents stating that

the parts had surpassed the governmental testing standards. From a legal and
ethical standpoint, both the testers and the writers of the reports were merely
acting as agents on direct orders from a superior. This was also the case when
the plant in Singapore refused to falsify the documents

and were later falsified by the employees at the have California plant before
being submitted to the approval committees (Velazquez, 53). The writers of the
reports were well aware of the situation yet they acted in this manner on the
instruction of a supervisor. Acting in an ethical

manner becomes a secondary priority in this type of environment. As stated by
Alan Reder, . . . if they [the employees] feel they will suffer retribution, if
they report a problem, they arent too likely to open their mouths. (113). The
workers knew that if the reports were not falsified

they would come under questioning and perhaps their employment would go into
jeopardy. Although working under these conditions does not fully excuse an
employees from moral fault, it does start the divulging process for determining
the order of the chain of command of superiors and it helps to narrow down the
person or department that issued the original request for the unethical acts.

 

 

The third mitigating factor is one that perhaps encompasses the majority of
the employees in the National Semiconductor case. We have to balance the direct
involvement that each employee had with the defective parts. Thus, it has to be
made clear that many of the employees did not

have a direct duty with the testing departments or with the parts that
eventually failed. Even employees, or sub-contractors, that were directly
involved with the production were not aware of the incompetence on the part of
the testing department. For example, the electrical engineer that

designed the defective computer chip could act in good faith that it would be
tested to ensure that it did indeed meet the required government endurance
tests. Also, for the employees that handled the part after the testing process,
they were dealing with what they believed to be a component that met every
governmental standard. If it was not tested properly, and did eventually fail,
isnt the testing department more morally responsible than the designer or the
assembly line worker that was in charge of installing the chip? Plus, in large
corporations there may be several testing departments and is some cases ... more

of national semiconductor

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