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of in vitro fertilization Cloning 4

Human embryo cloning should not be done because of the religious, moral, ethical, and social concerns that it places upon the human race. Although there may be some positive affects to cloning humans, there are far too many opposing factors in this situation. Many religious leaders of expressed their concern and condemnation of human cloning. The moral and ethical aspects outweigh any scientific evidence, and the social concerns are frightening. The most important question that needs to be asked, is whether the gains out weigh the losses--the gains being scientific research and the losses being the religious, moral, ethical, and social concerns that it poses on todays society. A clone, as defined in The Human Genome Project, is; 1. a population of genetically identical unicellular organisms or viruses arising from successive replications of a single ancestral unicellular organism or virus. 2. a recombinant clone. 3. the fragment of foreign DNA contained in each member of a recombinant clone. 4. a population of identical cells arising from the culture of a single cell of a certain type, such as a human fibroblast or a rodent-human hybrid cell containing a full set of rodent chromosomes and a single human chromosome. Human embryo cloning starts with a standard in vitro fertilization procedure. Sperm and an egg cell are mixed together on a glass dish. After conception, the zygote (fertilized egg) is allowed to develop into a blastula (a hollow mass of cells). The zygote divides first into two cells, then four, then eight... A chemical is added to the dish to remove the zona pellucida covering; this material provides nutrients to the cells to promote cell division. With the covering removed, the blastula is divided into individual cells which are deposited on individual dishes. They are then coated with an artificial zona pellucida and allowed to divide and develop. That is how a human embryo clone is made using the twinning method. Some scientists believe that human embryo cloning and related research can have some positive results, however, many religious leaders feel that cloning and related research should not be permitted. Religion and science have been involved in an ongoing battle over many subjects in the past, but human embryo cloning has caused the biggest debate thus far. Many religious philosophies teach that human life is unique and special and should be created, determined and controlled only by their deities. Many religions believe in the existence of, and in the individuality of, a human soul. Some people, particularly Evangelical Christians and Roman Catholics believe that a soul enters the body at the instant of conception, and the fertilized ovum is in fact a human being. Dividing that baby in half would interfere with Gods intent. And the many cloned zygotes that died after a few cell divisions would be lost human beings; their loss is considered as serious as the death of a new born baby. These same conservative Christians would also be distressed at the use of cloning to weed out genetically defective fertilized ovums. The procedure would result in the killing of one of the clones during the genetic testing. Since they regard all of the clones as separate human beings, this would be murder. The Church of Scotland has extensively studied aspects of cloning. The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland has passed a motion to reaffirm their belief in the basic dignity and uniqueness of each human being under God. They express the strongest possible opposition to the cloning of human beings and urge to press for a comprehensive international treaty to ban it worldwide. Jeremy Rifkin, president of the Foundation on Economic Trends in Washington DC, leads a coalition of 300 religious and ethics organizations from around the world. He proposes a worldwide ban on cloning, saying it should carry a penalty on a par with rape, child abuse, and murder. Aside from the religious aspect, human cloning has brought up many moral and ethical questions. The National Institute of Health set up a medical panel to form a preliminary set of guidelines to help bridge the gap between scientists and society. They recommend that research be permitted on preexisting embryos. The embryos would be allowed to ... more

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The Cystic Fibrosis Gene

Introduction:
       Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease
that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the
lungs.  This disease is the most common genetic disorder
amongst Caucasians.  Cystic fibrosis affects about one in
2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote.  
With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person
afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years
however, most die before the age of thirteen.1  Since so
many people are affected by this disease, it's no wonder
that CF was the first human genetic disease to be cloned by
geneticists.  In this paper, I will be focusing on how the
cystic fibrosis gene was discovered while at the same time,
discussing the protein defect in the CF gene, the
bio-chemical defect associated with CF, and possible
treatments of the disease.  

Finding the Cystic Fibrosis Gene:
       The classical genetic approach to finding the gene that is
responsible for causing a genetic disease has been to first
characterize the bio-chemical defect within the gene, then
to identify the mutated protein in the gene of interest, and
finally to locate the actual gene.  However, this classical
approach proved to be impractical when searching for the CF
gene.  To find the gene responsible for CF, the principle of
"reverse genetics" was applied.  Scientists accomplished
this by linking the disease to a specific chromosome.  After
this linkage, they isolated the gene of interest on the
chromosome and then tested its product.2
       Before the disease could be linked to a specific
chromosome, a marker needed to be found that would always
travel with the disease.  This marker is known as a
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism or RFLP for short.  
RFLP's are varying base sequences of DNA in different
individuals which are known to travel with genetic
disorders.3  The RFLP for cystic fibrosis was discovered
through the techniques of Somatic Cell Hybridization and
through Southern Blot Electrophoresis (gel separation of
DNA).  By using these techniques, three RFLP's were
discovered for CF; Doc RI, J3.11, and Met.  Utilizing in
situ hybridization, scientists discovered the CF gene to be
located on the long arm of chromosome number seven.  Soon
after identifying these markers, another marker was
discovered that segregated more frequently with CF than the
other markers.  This meant the new marker was closer to the
CF gene.  At this time, two scientists named Lap-Chu Tsui
and Francis Collins were able to isolate probes from the CF
interval.  They were now able to utilize to powerful
technique of chromosome jumping to speed up the time
required to isolate the CF gene much faster than if they
were to use conventional genetic techniques.3
       In order to determine the exact location of the CF gene,
probes were taken from the nucleotide sequence obtained from
chromosome jumping.  To get these probes, DNA from a horse,
a cow, a chicken, and a mouse were separated using Southern
Blot electrophoresis.  Four probes were found to bind to all
of the vertebrate's DNA.  This meant that the base pairs
within the probes discovered contained important
information, possibly even the gene.  Two of the four probes
were ruled out as possibilities because they did not contain
open reading frames which are segments of DNA that produce
the mRNA responsible for genes.
       The Northern Blot electrophoresis technique was then used
to distinguish between the two probes still remaining in
order to find out which one actually contained the CF gene.  
This could be accomplished because Northern Blot
electrophoresis utilizes RNA instead of DNA.  The RNA of
cell types affected with CF, along with the RNA of
unaffected cell types were placed on a gel.  Probe number
two bound to the RNA of affected cell types in the pancreas,
colon, and nose, but did not bind to the RNA from
non-affected cell types like those of the brain and heart.  
Probe number one did not bind exclusively to cell types from
CF affected areas like probe number two did.  From this
evidence, it was determined that probe number two contained
the CF gene.
       While isolating the CF gene and screening the genetic
library made from mRNA (cDNA library), it was discovered
that probe number two ... more

of in vitro fertilization

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  • O: Human genome project 2 O: Human genome project 2 Human genome project 2 It all started back in 1953 with two men by the names of James D. Watson and Francis Crick when they discovered the double-helical structure of DNA. Little did they know they were opening the door to the creation of a perfect world. In 1986, the Human Genome Project, led up by the National Institution of Health(NIH), took a giant leap through this door. They began the long process of mapping out the entire genetic makeup of the human body. The main purpose of the HGP was o...
  • F: Cloning 4 F: Cloning 4 Cloning 4 Human embryo cloning should not be done because of the religious, moral, ethical, and social concerns that it places upon the human race. Although there may be some positive affects to cloning humans, there are far too many opposing factors in this situation. Many religious leaders of expressed their concern and condemnation of human cloning. The moral and ethical aspects outweigh any scientific evidence, and the social concerns are frightening. The most important question that needs t...
  •  : The Cystic Fibrosis Gene : The Cystic Fibrosis Gene The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man...
  • I: Genetic Engineering I: Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic Technology and the betterment of our world What exactly is genetic engineering? A simple definition of genetic engineering is the ability to isolate DNA pieces that contain selected genes of other species(Muench 238). Genetic engineering has been the upcoming field of biology since the early nineteen seventies. The prosperous field has benefits for both the medical and also the agricultural field. The diminishing of diseases, especially congenital disorders, reducti...
  • N: Cloning N: Cloning Cloning Shortly after the announcement that British scientists had successfully cloned a sheep, Dolly, cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more feasible in today\'s society. The word clone has been applied to cells as well as to organisms, so that a group of cells stemming from a single cell is also called a clone. Usually the members of a clone are identical in their inherited characteristics that is, in their genes except for any differences caused by mutation. Ide...
  •  : Cloning : Cloning Cloning And Ethics Ever since the successful cloning of an adult sheep, world has been buzzing about the historical event. Dolly the sheep has redefined the meaning of the words identical twin. Not only does she look like her mother, she has the same genetic makeup as her. This experiment was not only was thought of as impossible, but unthinkable. It was achieved in July 1996 by Dr. Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute in Roslin, Scotland. Dolly was announced to the public when she was seven...
  • V: In Vitro Fertilization V: In Vitro Fertilization In Vitro Fertilization The Process and Ethics Involving In Vitro Fertilization On July 25, 1978 the first successful in vitro fertilization baby was born in Kershaw\'s Cottage Hospital in Lancashire England. Louise Brown as she was named brought forth a new hope and era for making babies especially for people who had been diagnosed infertile or sterile. This marked the first time that a human offspring had been created outside the body from the union of an egg and a sperm. The people responsible...
  • I: cloning I: cloning cloning The next step was to clone actual human beings but before experiments could have been carried out pressure started build on the scientists because people started to doubt if cloning was ethical and morally correct. Governments began to introduce bans and constraints on cloning, as they felt cloning was not correct and because they represented the people of its country, it had to act on it. Cloning has its cons but its pros seem to overcome them greatly. If cloning were allowed to be expe...
  • T: Investigation of Reproduction and Development in A T: Investigation of Reproduction and Development in A Investigation of Reproduction and Development in Animals Due Date: 12/9/96 Cycles, Conception and Contraception Fertility is the condition of being fertile. The aim of contraception is to inhibit fertility in individuals, hence, slowing population growth. The system by which all female contraception must operate: the menstrual cycle. What is the menstrual cycle? and what hormones are involved in controlling it? After puberty, the female produces an egg each month. Other changes take place on a c...
  • R: Abortion: Birth Control or Legal Murder? R: Abortion: Birth Control or Legal Murder? Abortion: Birth Control or Legal Murder? Approximately 1.6 million murders are committed legally each year. With the exception of laws in few states, the mutilated bodies of the victims are thrown into dumpsters like pieces of rotten meat. While these victims lay waiting in the infested dumpsters to be hauled off to a landfill, the murderers are in their offices waiting for their next patient--the accomplice to the murder. This is the murder of an innocent child by a procedure known as abortion....
  • O: cloning O: cloning cloning Warren Joe Biology I-11:00-12:20 Dr. T G Thomas 12-2-00 Can we and should we clone humans? Cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more realistic in today's society than it was twenty years ago. It is a method that involves the production of a group of identical cells or organisms that all derive from a single individual (Grolier 220). It is not known when or how cloning humans really became a possibility, but it is known that there are two possible ways that we ...
  •  : Cloning Sheeps : Cloning Sheeps Cloning Sheeps Three years ago a sheep named Dolly became the biggest news since the first successful open-heart surgery. Dolly, unlike every other mammal on earth is an identical copy of its mother. Dolly has no father. The miracle of cloning was preformed by Dr. Ian Willmut and his team at Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. The new research has opened a large amount of possibilities for the future use of the technique as well as many ethical issues regarding human cloning. The Roslin Ins...
  • F: Cloning F: Cloning Cloning A couple that had been married for only two years was in a terrible car accident. The wife walked away with a few cuts and bruises. The husband, however was unconscious when the paramedics arrived. He went into a coma shortly after arriving at the nearby hospital. He came out of the coma but was never to be the same again. It turns out that when he was in the accident he had severe head trauma, and would be a vegetable the rest of his life. He could not take part in the reproduction of c...
  • E: Cloning E: Cloning Cloning Cloning Will Not Benefit Society Works Cited Dixon, Patrick. Reasons Against Cloning. 26 July 2002 Holy Bible, King James Version. Anaheim, CA: Lockman Foundation, 1998. Kayotic Development. Anti-Cloning Research. 22 July 2002 New Scientist: Raising The Dead 22 July 2002 Nussbaum, Martha C., and Cass R. Sunstein. Clones and Clones. W.W. Norton Company. New York. London, 1998 Pence, Gregory E., ed. Flesh Of My Flesh. Rowman Little Field Publishers, Inc., Oxford, 1998 Roleff, Tamara L., ed...
  • R: Cloning and stem cell research R: Cloning and stem cell research cloning and stem cell research Cory King ENG 120 Sec. 02 Spring 2002 March 15, 2002 Cloning, and Stem Cell Research Technology has advanced a great deal within the past few years. We have learned so much information about animals genes and what can be done with them. However, with this new information brings new questions and arguments. So far, scientists have successfully cloned a sheep, a monkey, a bull, and are working on an endangered breed of ox, of course cloning animals and conducting re...
  • T: Cloning10 T: Cloning10 Cloning10 The cloning of humans is now very close to reality, thanks to the historic scientific breakthrough of Dr. Ian Wilmut and his colleagues in the UK. This possibility is one of incredible potential benefit for all of us. Unfortunately the initial debate on this issue has been dominated by misleading, sensationalized accounts in the news media and negative emotional reactions derived from inaccurate science fiction. Much of the negativity about human cloning is based simply on the breathta...
  • I: Reproductive technology I: Reproductive technology reproductive technology Technological development and the advancement of science constantly raises new political and legal challenges. We must promote scientific development, but at the same time we must also impose restrictions involving certain human and social values. Reproductive technology is one of the best examples of the challenges posed by the development of medical science and its involvement with the law. Issues involved with Reproductive Technology include: Techniques, Morals and Et...
  • L: Multiple births L: Multiple births multiple births Since the 1970s, the number of triplets and higher multiple births have quadrupled due to fertility treatments, such as, in vitro fertilization and fertility drugs. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, by 1995 alone, 9.3 million American women sought help for infertility problems (Ackerman 63). With this increase in complicated multiple pregnancies, regulations need to be set in place to avoid the undesired consequences of fertility treatments. Technology has ...
  • I: Cloning I: Cloning Cloning Human cloning has become a hot topic for debate. As we progressed one step closer to successfully cloning and developing a human being, legislators and the general public have become more concerned about the ethical and moral implications of this procedure. The federal government has been unsuccessful in reaching an agreement as to what policy to pass and enact. Thus, any current legislation on human cloning has been developed and enforced by individual states. The state of California is...
  • Z: Cloning Benefits Z: Cloning Benefits Cloning Benefits Cloning Benefits What if while walking down the street you encountered someone who looked exactly like you? Would you stare in amazement or would your heart be filled with fear? At first some people may look upon the idea of cloning with disgust and question themselves if humans should play God while others would be interested and study the many possibilities that cloning offers. This illustrates the path that cloning has taken over the latter part of the twentieth century. At f...
  • A: Infertility A: Infertility infertility Infertility is the inability or failure to conceive after a year of regular intercourse without contraception. There are two categories to classify infertility, primary and secondary. Primary infertility occurs in women who have never conceived while secondary infertility occurs in women who had a previous conception. Affecting about one in six couples, there are many causes of infertility. A little more than half of cases of infertility are attributed to female conditions. Female co...
  • T: Genetic Engineering: The Final Frontier T: Genetic Engineering: The Final Frontier Genetic Engineering: The Final Frontier In February of 1997 Dolly, the first successful mammalian clone, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. After the extensive news coverage of this momentous event, the study of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA was thrown into the public spotlight. From that day until this peoples, governments and organizations throughout the world have heatedly discussed the issues surrounding genetic modification and engineering. Over the past several years there has been...
  • I: In Vitro Fertilization I: In Vitro Fertilization In Vitro Fertilization In Vitro Fertilization The unexamined life is not worth living. With these words, Socrates stated the creed of reflective men and women and set the task for ethics: to seek, with the help of reason, a consistent and defensible approach to life and its moral dilemmas (Walters 22). Ethical inquiry is important to us when we are unsure of the direction in which we are heading. New philosophy calls all in doubt, wrote John Donne in the wake of the Copernican Revolution and...
  • O: Gliricidiaa sepium O: Gliricidiaa sepium Gliricidiaa sepium Gliricidia was first used in Mexico to provide shade for cacao plantations. It is from this use that the Aztecs labeled the tree Madre de Cacao (Mother of cacao). Later, in the 18th Century, Gliricidia was brought to Sri Lanka to provide shade for coffee plantations. Today, the tree\'s long leafy branches are used to shade vanilla and tea crops as well. The tree is also known in Spanish as Palo de Hierrro (Tree of Iron) which eludes to Gliricidia\'s hard, heavy wood. This ...
  • N: Cloning N: Cloning Cloning A couple that had been married for only two years was in a terrible car accident. The wife walked away with a few cuts and bruises. The husband, however was unconscious when the paramedics arrived. He went into a coma shortly after arriving at the nearby hospital. He came out of the coma but was never to be the same again. It turns out that when he was in the accident he had severe head trauma, and would be a vegetable the rest of his life. He could not take part in the reproduction of c...