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of alzheimer s disease Human genome project 2

It all started back in 1953 with two men by the names of
James D. Watson and Francis Crick when they discovered the
double-helical structure of DNA.  Little did they know they were
opening the door to the creation of a perfect world.  In 1986,
the Human Genome Project, led up by the National Institution of
Health(NIH), took a giant leap through this door.  They began the
long process of mapping out the entire genetic makeup of the
human body.  The main purpose of the HGP was originally for the
use of preventing inherent diseases.  However, as studies
continue to progress, increased opportunities arise for
genetically altering the unborn.  You are now able to choose the
sex of you child before they are born with great accuracy.  What
is on the horizon now, is the possibility of designing your child
to be “perfect”.  Over the years, there has been heated, ethical
controversy on each of these issues, especially designer babies.
How far will we let biotechnological discovery take us?  What
will come of the world if designer babies become standard
procedure?
The earliest and maybe simplest use of genetic manipulation
was in the selection of the sex of an unborn child.  In Vitro
Fertilization(IVF - A procedure in which a woman’s eggs are
removed from her body, fertilized outside using sperm from her
husband or another donor, and then transferred back to her body.)
was originally limited to couples that were infertile.  Even the
use of IVF for the infertile was unheard of at one point.  “But
growing demand makes it socially acceptable, and now anybody
who’s infertile demands IVF,” says Lee Silver, a Princeton
University biologist.  Several years ago, fertility clinics
announced the new possibility of sex selection.  It was obviously
an exciting breakthrough, but when these clinics were inquired
about their results, they only had about a 50 percent success
rate.  “Its affluent clients could have achieved exactly the same
outcome by leaving a note for the tooth fairy, requesting a girl
or a boy”(Riddell).  In the same way, there were many who were
opposed to the idea at first especially with the results they
were getting, but over time the procedures have been almost
perfected and it has become socially acceptable.(Lemonick)
Many issues have arisen from the possibilities sex selection
will provide.  In cultures where males are valued more than
girls, such as China and India, assured sex selection could
really throw off an already out of balance society.  In the
United States it may not be as likely for there to be a favored
sex, generally speaking.  In our case, it is more of a weighted
opinion on what order you should have your kids, what sex should
come first.  Statistics show that the ideal family has a male as
the firstborn.  Males tend to be more assertive and more dominant
than females, as do firstborns.  If you put all this together, it
seems as though we are headed towards an even more male-dominated
world.  This is obviously a huge issue not only for the feminist
and gender-role stereotypes, but also for the more general idea
of a balance of nature.  Will females eventually fade out of
existence?  That is obviously farfetched, but definitely not
impossible.(Lemonick)
At this point, the majority still agrees that the provisions
of genetic engineering should be limited to the correction of
inherent diseases.  There are two primary ways that genetics can
be used to treat diseases.  The first is gene therapy, in which
one or more genes are injected into the patient to replace those
that are absent or not working properly.  This approach has been
used to treat a broad range of disorders such as heart disease,
many forms of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, AIDS, and
many more.  The second way to employ genes to treat diseases is
known as small-molecule therapy.  In this approach, the patient
is given a small molecule (drug) to modify the function of one or
more genes in the body.  When the pioneers of gene therapy first
requested government approval for their experiments in 1987, they
vowed they would never alter the patients’ germline (eggs or
sperm).(Begley)
Dr. W. French Anderson, who had ... more

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Work and labour

Work and labour have been around forever, although it did not always work to the standards that we are used to today.  Over the years, many hard working and deprived people had to fight for the rights that are taken for granted today.  Are safety and health involved with work?  Is work dangerous for your health?  I will try to answer these questions by summarising four short commentaries as well as adding my opinion.
  Through out history, people have put workers in danger and sometimes added elements that they thought were actually helping to protect their workers, but instead were actually adding danger to the workers.  There is no better example of this than that of the mining industry.  As we know, mining in deep caverns can be very dangerous, but the most damage received was even before you stepped into the mine. "Dust to Dust" by Charlie Angus explains this theory.  There is a mining sickness that has taken many lives. It is called Silicosis.                                                 "In gold mines, the silica is found in the quartz veins that surround the ore.  Disturbed dust attacks and lacerates the lining of the lung with it's jagged, crystalline edges. In the confined spaces underground, a miner has no choice but to breath in large amounts of silica dust. The effects of long term exposure are a litany of elements related to the breathing of this dust: silicosis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease, silica tuberculosis, pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and corpulminary (right-heart failure)."  Dust to Dust.                               Many people were getting very sick, leaving the mines and some were even dying due to these horrible working conditions and diseases. The mining company came up with, what they thought, was a solution. Before entering the mine the miners were put in a sealed room where they would inhale aluminum dust that was supposed to prevent silicosis.  However, this was never  medically proven. What they found out was that, not only was it not fully doing its job, but that it might be causing another devastating decease called Alzheimer's. Any one is susceptible to Alzheimer's after being exposed to aluminum for a long time.  Imagine if you are inhaling it for fifteen minutes a day.  Although at the beginning of this century proper mine ventilation was considered an exorbitant expense, it was now obvious  that's what needed to be done even though the owners didn't think so. The workers pulled together and fought for more ventilation and better working conditions. What about the hundreds of miners who died and left families behind?                                                    "They were proud women, ashamed to go before the compensation board and ask for a handout. But, unable to keep the family together on the money they earned as seamstresses or housekeepers, they would finally file claims, only to be told that their husband's death was not work related. His rotted lungs and aggravated heart had come not from mining, but from cigarettes and a bad eastern European diet." Dust to Dust.
  Not only can work be bad for your physical health but also your mental health. Every year many people suffer depression and some even commit suicide due to workplace stress.  "Workplace Stress" by Cathy Walker explains that in the year 1989, after the signing of the free trade agreement, four workers, all from the same General Motors plant in St. Therese, committed suicide within a six month period. The main workplace stresses the article gives are as follows.                                                  
 "   Machine pacing of work-rhythm and machine control of work methods.                                                                 Monotonous, repetitive work, activates only a limited part of total human capabilities.
      Lack of possibilities of contact with other people as part of the on-going work.
      Piece rate and related payment systems.
      Authoritarian and detailed control of the individual, be it through foreman or impersonal "systems" (e.g., computer-based planning systems)." Workplace Stress.
   " Bias in Workers Compensation Board Policies" Workplace Stress.
After years of untreated workplace stress companies have begun to sympathize with, and compensate the workers. There is a problem with the big compensation boards.  Many believe that they are bias against blue collar workers, women and maybe racist. Examples of this are episodes where a manager or foreman has experienced stress ... more

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  •  : Work and labour : Work and labour Work and labour Work and labour have been around forever, although it did not always work to the standards that we are used to today. Over the years, many hard working and deprived people had to fight for the rights that are taken for granted today. Are safety and health involved with work? Is work dangerous for your health? I will try to answer these questions by summarising four short commentaries as well as adding my opinion. Through out history, people have put workers in danger and sometime...
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