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negro national league The New Deal1

The New Deal picked people up when the Great Depression sent them down.  It restored faith in the American people.  The New Deal helped bring businesses and unemployment from out of the cellar.  It got the economy back on its feet after it looked like nothing could help.  All this was possible because of one man.  Why did they put so much faith into one person?  Even though the New Deal was a great success, why did they expect this one person to save them?  You can't put your future into the hands of one person.  Franklin D. Roosevelt  was the man who saw this challenge and overcame it with great success.  Even thought his great plan had there ups and downs, to many of the American people he wasn't just another President, he was a hero.
The Great Depression was a rough time for all the American people.  It sent many banks, farms, and business to close.  This caused people to loose there jobs and others to reduce their salary.  This was a dark time for the people and they started loosing faith.  The people put their hopes on Herbert Hoover who told the people that the Great Depression was coming to an end.  The fact of the matter was the it was only in its prime.  Hoover promised the American people many things that he knew that could raise hope in people, but he never took action.  When Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected in 1933, how did the people know that Roosevelt wasn't just another President that would not take any action.
Roosevelt became the President and right away had to face a very serious problem.  His election got him involved right when the economy hit rock bottom.  Roosevelt knew he had to at least put a smile on the American people's face.  He started by selecting a tune called "Happy Days  Are Here Again".  The people believed this to be a promise that they were getting a President to rely on.  How did the people know that this wasn't just some guy making campaign promises?  They say it was the unusual way that he related to people.  Roosevelt reached the people through great speeches.  His speeches forged communities together to let them know that they were not alone.  In return for giving the people hope, they gave the President there trust.
Now that Roosevelt had the American peoples trust, he started his New Deal coalition.  The people joined his coalition because he reached out to each and everyone of them.  He promised "action, and action now".  That's what the people wanted and that's what the people got.  Roosevelt passed many acts to help strengthen his New Deal.  However, he received his first failure when he passed the National Industrial Recovery Act (NRA).  It was supposed to provide something for everybody in the working business, but employers didn't like the fact that they were going to have to give raises and bargain with unions.  By 1935 the NRA was destroyed by a court case which later declined many of the New Deal programs.  Even though many of the programs were not very successful Roosevelt's New Deal for labor was his biggest success.
The reason why businesses where having a great deal of problems is because many companies went against the National Industrial Recovery Act(NRA) of 1933.  The NRA stated that any company asking for help from the NRA would have to let their workers form unions.  This would create the National Labor Relations Board that helped enforce the right of the workers.  The automotive and steel workers were demanding higher wages and benefits at the time.  Since this happened in the midst of the Great Depression, many of these workers had no choice but to go on strike because companies could not afford to meet with the workers demands.  The automotive strikers had the greatest success and they had Roosevelt and the New Deal to thank.  In 1937, the workers decided to start these sit - down strikes.  They would go to work just to sit down and observe their work place.  Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition heard of this and instead of helping the companies by sending in police ... more

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Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey and the UNIA

Marcus Garvey and his organization, the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), represent the largest mass movement in African-American history. Proclaiming a black nationalist "Back to Africa" message, Garvey and the UNIA established 700 branches in thirty-eight states by the early 1920s. While chapters existed in the larger urban areas such as New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, Garvey's message also reached into small towns across the country.  His philosophy and organization had a rich religious component that he blended with the political and economic aspects.
Garvey was born in 1887 in St. Anne's Bay, Jamaica. Due to the economic hardship of his family, he left school at age fourteen and learned the printing and newspaper business. He became interested in politics and soon got involved in projects aimed at helping those on the bottom of society. Unsatisfied with his work, he traveled to London in 1912 and stayed in England for two years.  While in London, he read Booker T. Washington's autobiography Up From Slavery. Washington believed African Americans needed to improve themselves first, showing whites in America that they deserved equal rights. Although politically involved behind the scenes, Washington repeatedly claimed that African Americans would not benefit from political activism and started an industrial training school in Alabama that embodied his own philosophy of self-help. Garvey embraced Washington's ideas and returned to Jamaica to found the UNIA with the motto "One God! One Aim! One Destiny!
Initially he kept very much in line with Washington by encouraging his fellow Jamaicans to work hard, demonstrate good morals and a strong character, and not worry about politics. Garvey did not make much headway in Jamaica and decided to visit America in order to learn more about the situation of African Americans. When Garvey came to America, he decided to travel around the country and observe African Americans and their struggle for equal rights.  Garvey saw a shifting population and a diminishing hope in Jim Crows demise. African Americans were moving in large numbers out of the rural South and into the urban areas of both North and South.  After surveying the racial situation in America, Garvey was convinced that integration would never happen and that only economic, political, and cultural success on the part of African Americans would bring about equality and respect. With this goal he established the headquarters of the UNIA in New York in 1917 and began to spread a message of Black Nationalism and the Back to Africa campaign.  Garvey held nightly meetings in Liberty Hall in Harlem and began a newspaper, Negro World, which by 1920 had a circulation somewhere between 50,000 and 200,000.  Garvey knew African Americans would not take action if they did not change their perceptions of themselves. He hammered home the idea of racial pride by celebrating the African past and encouraging African Americans to be proud of their heritage and proud of the way they looked.  
In late 1920, the UNIA convened a 31-day international meeting in Madison Square Garden, where they presented a policy statement on the Back to Africa program and proclaimed a formal Declaration of Rights for blacks all over the world. Following this, Garvey set himself the task of negotiating for the repatriation of blacks to Liberia. Rumors that Garvey's real intention was to seize power in Liberia to withdraw all support from the venture, leaving Garvey stunned from the realization that he had actually been rebuffed by a black African nation.  Garvey then found himself in serious financial difficulties caused by business ventures gone wrong.  He promoted two new business organizations--the African Communities League and the Negro Factories Corporation. He also tried to salvage his colonization scheme by sending a delegation to appeal to the League of Nations for transfer to the UNIA of the African colonies taken from Germany during World War I.  
Financial betrayal by trusted aides and a host of legal entanglements eventually led to Garvey's imprisonment in Atlanta Federal Penitentiary for a five-year term. In 1927 his half-served sentence was commuted, and he was deported to Jamaica by order of President Calvin Coolidge. Garvey then turned his energies to Jamaica politics, campaigning on a platform of self-government, minimum wage ... more

negro national league

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  • N: Marcus Garvey N: Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey We declare to the world that Africa must be free, that the Negro race must be emancipated (p. 137 Altman, Susan. Extraordinary Black Americans.) are the famous words delivered by Marcus Mosiah Garvey. Born a West Indian, he later became a powerful revolutionary who led the nation into the Civil Rights Movement. Garvey dedicated his life to the uplifting of the Negro and to millions of Black people everywhere, he represented dignity and self-respect. Like Malcolm X o...
  • E: The New Deal1 E: The New Deal1 The New Deal1 The New Deal picked people up when the Great Depression sent them down. It restored faith in the American people. The New Deal helped bring businesses and unemployment from out of the cellar. It got the economy back on its feet after it looked like nothing could help. All this was possible because of one man. Why did they put so much faith into one person? Even though the New Deal was a great success, why did they expect this one person to save them? You can\'t put your future into...
  • G: Marcus Garvey G: Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey and the UNIA Marcus Garvey and his organization, the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), represent the largest mass movement in African-American history. Proclaiming a black nationalist \Back to Africa\ message, Garvey and the UNIA established 700 branches in thirty-eight states by the early 1920s. While chapters existed in the larger urban areas such as New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, Garvey\'s message also reached into small towns across the countr...
  • R: Black Leaders Of 20th Century R: Black Leaders Of 20th Century Black Leaders Of 20th Century BLACK LEADERS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY In the time after the fall of radical black reconstruction of the nineteenth century, African Americans were being oppressed by rural farming, civil rights, economical advancement and sharecropping. Booker T. Washington charged the fight for economical and political accommodation with his dream of equal civil rights. Timothy Thomas Fortune was an influential black journalist that fought for the rights of African Americans throu...
  • O: This is just a small example of the doubt and hatr O: This is just a small example of the doubt and hatr This is just a small example of the doubt and hatred that was bestowed on the African American soldiers. However, during the war, they proved themselves to be brave and courageous men on and off the battlefield on many occasions. Despite deep prejudices and harsh criticisms from the white society, these men were true champions of patriotism. The cause of the Civil War was tension between the North and the South. The sectional division between the areas began in colonial times, largely resulting ...
  •  : Booker T. Washington : Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington Booker Taliaferro Washington was born on April 5, 1856 in Franklin County, Virginia near a cross-roads post-office called Hales Ford. He was an American educator and a black leader. When Booker was a child he worked in coal mines for nine months a year and spent the other three attending school. In 1875 he graduated after working his way through Hampton Institute. In 1881 he became the first president of Tuskegee Institute, a trade school for blacks t...
  • N: Seneca Falls N: Seneca Falls Seneca Falls Title: The road from SENECA FALLS. (cover story) Source: New Republic, 08/10/98, Vol. 219 Issue 6, p26, 12p, 3bw Author(s): Stansell, Christine Abstract: Reviews several books related to women\'s suffrage and feminism. The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady STANTON and Susan B. Anthony, Volume One: In the School of Anti-Slavery, 1840-1866,\' edited by Ann D. Gordon; Harriet STANTON Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage,\' by Ellen Carol DuBois; Woman Suffrage and the Orig...
  • A: Booker T. Washington A: Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington I\'m Booker T Washington In 1881, I founded and became principal of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. I started this school in an old abandoned church and a shanty. The school\'s name was later changed to Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University). The school taught specific trades, such as carpentry, farming, and mechanics, and trained teachers. As it expanded, I spent much of his time raising funds. Under Washington\'s leadership, the institute became famous as a...
  • T: Civil Rights T: Civil Rights Civil Rights The Civil rights movement (1955- 1965) Civil Rights Movement in the United States, was a political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African Americans and to achieve racial equality. The civil rights movement was a challenge to segregation, the system of laws and customs separating blacks and whites. During the civil rights movement, individuals and organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest m...
  • I: Jackie Robinson I: Jackie Robinson Jackie Robinson Jack Roosevelt (Jackie) Robinson He was the first black person to ever be at bat in the Major Leagues, and made his name famous. But now, everyone seems to have forgotten this great legend. So I hope that this will refresh your memory, had if youve never heard of him this is what happened in his life: Born on January 31 1919 in Cairo Ga., Jack Roosevelt (Jackie) Robinson, he was raised on the Sasser Plantation. He grew up without a father who left for Florida with another mans w...
  • O: Booker T Washington2 O: Booker T Washington2 Booker T Washington2 Booker T. Washington was born on April 5, 1865. He was born into slavery at the James Burroughs family plantation in Virginia. Nothing is known about Booker T. Washingtons father beyond the fact that he was a white man. After the Civil War Booker T. Washington worked in a salt furnace and attended school 3 months out of the year. At the age of 17, he was accepted into Hampton Institute in Virginia. When Booker T. Washington graduated from the institute, he then entered the...
  • N: madam bovary N: madam bovary madam bovary Students were assigned this essay as an inside look at oppression and racism from the last one hundred years, told by two elderly ladies in the book, Having Our Say. 100 Years of Degradation There are several books that have to be read in English 095. Having Our Say is one of them. My advice is to read this book while you are still in 090 or 094, just to get the advantage. These are some things that you will discover in this extraordinary biography. This book is tough to take as hum...
  • A: Booker t. washington 2 A: Booker t. washington 2 Booker t. washington 2 During the progressive era in the late 1800s, white people were in control of society. The blacks had been freed under the Emancipation Proclamation, but were not being treated equal. Mainly because they were black. But that was not the only reason. Blacks were also not treated equally because they did not possess the intelligence and skills of whites. A great man decided to fight for equality between blacks and whites. His name was Booker Taliaferro Washington. Booker T....
  • L: Blacks and Mormons L: Blacks and Mormons Blacks and Mormons The 1830 publication of the Book of Mormon by Joseph Smith, officially established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ believe that Smith, under divine guidance, translated a set of golden plates into the Book of Mormon. This was the first of several literary works that were said to contain proper doctrine of the beliefs and views of the Mormon religion. Throughout the development of the Church, several aspects of the Mormon...
  •  : Jackie Robinson (1919-72) : Jackie Robinson (1919-72) Jackie Robinson (1919-72) Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born in Cairo, Georgia., on January 31, 1919 to Jerry and Mallie Robinson. He grew up in Pasadena, California. In high school and at Pasadena Junior College he showed great athletic skill in track, basketball, football, and baseball. He left school in 1941 and was drafted the following year for Army service during World War II. After receiving a medical discharge in 1945, Jackie Robinson decided to tryout for the Boston Red Sox, but ended up ...
  • L: jackie robinson L: jackie robinson jackie robinson April 15, 1947 is the day that one of the most important events in American history took place. On that day, Jackie Robinson took the final step in making the biggest breakthrough in sports history, it was the day that Jackie Robinson played his first Major League Baseball game, which was also the first game of any kind in organized athletics in which a white man shared the field with an African-American. By doing so, he opened the door for future African-Americans to play organi...
  • E: Jackie robinson 3 E: Jackie robinson 3 Jackie robinson 3 Jackie Robinson: Breaking the Color Barrier Its April 15, 1947 opening day at Ebbets Field, Brooklyn. Many people have turned out to see one man, the first black person to ever play in major league baseball. He is setting new standards for all blacks now and those to come. His name is Jack Roosevelt Robinson. We all wish him well and hope he can surmount the racial differences. At this time it was unheard of to have a black person treated equally to a white person, more the le...
  • A: History of Harlem A: History of Harlem History of Harlem Number 1: The New Negro Alain Locke edited a volume of critical essays and literature entitled the New Negro. In it, Locke heralded a spiritual awakening within the Afro-American community. It was manifested by a creative outburst of art, music and literature as well as by a new mood of self-confidence and self-consciousness within that community. The center of this explosion was located in Harlem. Famous personalities such as Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson James...
  • G: Madam bovary G: Madam bovary madam bovary Students were assigned this essay as an inside look at oppression and racism from the last one hundred years, told by two elderly ladies in the book, Having Our Say. 100 Years of Degradation There are several books that have to be read in English 095. Having Our Say is one of them. My advice is to read this book while you are still in 090 or 094, just to get the advantage. These are some things that you will discover in this extraordinary biography. This book is tough to take as hum...
  • U: Ida B. Wells U: Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells (1862-1931) was a newspaper editor and journalist who went on to lead the American anti-lynching crusade. Working closely with both African-American community leaders and American suffragists, Wells worked to raise gender issues within the \Race Question\ and race issues within the \Woman Question.\ Wells was born the daughter of slaves in Holly Springs, Mississippi, on July 16, 1862. During Reconstruction, she was educated at a Missouri Freedman\'s Sch...
  • E: Ida B. Wells E: Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells The Success of Ida B. Wells One had better die fighting against injustice than die like a dog or a rat in a trap. - Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells was an important figure in Black American History. She was born a slave in Mississippi in 1862. Wells was able to gain an education and, later, became a journalist for various Negro papers. Through her writing, she was able to attack issues dealing with discrimination against African-American people. Ida B. Wells became an interna...
  • Rock and rap censorship Rock and rap censorship rock and rap censorship While the censorship of art is not a new phenomenon, recent years have witnessed renewed and intensified attempts to control popular culture. In particular, rap and rock music have come under increasing attack from various sides representing the entire left and right political spectrum, purportedly for their explicit sexual and violent lyrical contents. In this paper is investigated which moral codes underlie these claims against popular music, how social movements mobili...
  • Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells IDA B. WELLS-BARNETT Ida B. Wells-Barnett is first among many. She was a civil servant and fought injustices amongst the black community. Ida was born a slave in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1862. There she witnessed the Civil War and the dramatic changes it brought to her life. During Reconstruction she found possession of previously unheard-of freedoms, her civil rights. The most dramatic change was the institution of schools for the education of blacks. The establishment of the ...
  • Famous african americans Famous african americans Famous african americans Throughout his life Ralph Bunche worked to improve race relations and further the cause of civil rights. For 22 years he served on the board of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, earning its highest honor, the Spingarn Medal, in 1949. He participated in several civil rights demonstrations, including the 1963 March on Washington. That same year, U.S. President John F. Kennedy awarded him the Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian awar...
  • Jackie Robinsn: A man who Changed America Jackie Robinsn: A man who Changed America Jackie Robinsn: A man who Changed America Jackie Robinson made one of the most daring moves by playing Major League baseball. The amount of pain and suffering this man went through was so harsh that I don\'t know how he was able to play. Carl Erskine said,Maybe I see Jackie differently. You say he broke the color line. But I say he didn\'t break anything. Jackie was a healer. He came to rectify a wrong, to heal a sore in America(Dorinson back cover). Jackie was born January thirty-first 1919. ...