Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change


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nations framework convention on climate change HYBRID CARS: THE FUTURE OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

The current vehicles that are powered by gasoline pollute, but as technologies improve and the human way of life changes alternatively powered vehicles enter the automotive industry. These vehicles developed to achieve better gas mileage and to help slow the production of the gasses that cause Global Warming. The hybrid vehicle is one of the newest and most popular alternatively powered vehicle. Hybrid electric vehicles are energy efficient cars or trucks that run on an internal combustion engine of a gas vehicle with the battery and electric motor of an electric vehicle.  This results in twice the fuel economy of gas vehicles.  These hybrid electric vehicles consume fewer natural resources than gas vehicles and produce almost no emission fumes compared to the standard gas vehicle.  Hybrid cars are one solution to preserving air quality for the future.
Hybrid electric cars were created because of the shortfall in battery technology.  The batteries that were being made could not produce enough power.  These batteries would not sustain long trips with the car.  To work around this and onboard generator, powered by an internal combustion engine could be used for long trips.  These cars became known as hybrid electric vehicles that are now being mass-produced by companies like Toyota and Honda. When the vehicle starts and travels at city street speeds less than 30 miles per hour the electric motor does the greatest amount of the work. As the cars power sources begins to lose some of its energy the backup gasoline engine starts. This function is similar to how gasoline cars work, with the alternator using the engine's power to recharge the battery. After the power supply is replenished the gasoline engine shuts down. Also the gasoline engine is used to power the vehicle as it reaches the higher speeds where the added horsepower is needed. Usually the speed at which the gasoline engine starts is in the 30 mile per hour range. Even as the gasoline engine runs the electric motor continues to provide power for the vehicle. This vehicle combination in my opinion is beneficial economically and environmentally.   Using the hybrid electric vehicle will reduce smog-forming pollutants and cut emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half.  The average gas vehicle will pose substantial economic, environmental and energy security issue for the U.S. and all nations.  When the hybrid operation schedule is biased more toward the energy storage system, relying more on the battery than on the genset, emission levels become more like those of an battery electric vehicle which has a zero emission reading level.
The hybrid electric cars have several advantages over the gas guzzling cars that are already out there.  The hybrid cars greatest advantage is that they almost release zero emissions into the atmosphere.  These cars use their brakes to regenerate power to the batteries.  When the car is slowing down it takes the energy being released when slowing the car down.  The result is a use of energy that does not require the car to be plugged in.  The cars reduce the dependency on fossil fuels because they are run on alternative fuels.  By combining gasoline with electric power, hybrids will have the same or greater range than traditional combustion engines.
Hybrid electric cars are normally divided into the subtypes of either series or parallel, which refers to the way in which the engine supplies power to the propulsion system.  In the series hybrid, a heat engine powers a generator, which either charges the battery or supplies power directly to the propulsion circuit and thereby reduces demand on the batter.  In a parallel hybrid, the heat engine delivers mechanical power directly to the drive train, and the generator is eliminated.  The series hybrid is used mostly in the design of todays hybrids, because of the lighter, smaller, and more powerful gensets that have been developed.  Energy and power requirements are based on a multiple of driving schedules that include power/duration plots of acceleration, cruise, and total trip energy demands for each driving schedule.
The environmental benefits of a hybrid electric vehicle depend on the design of the hybrid power system.  Designs using combustion engine for onboard electrical generation and an operating ... more

nations framework convention on climate change

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Mike Porter

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Michael Porter On How To Marry Strategy & Operational Effectiveness
The Harvard management guru argues that operations & strategy must "fit" to create a sustainable competitive advantage.
For almost two decades, managers have been learning to play by a new set of rules. Companies must be flexible to respond rapidly to competitive and market changes. They must benchmark continuously to achieve best practice. They must outsource aggressively to gain efficiencies. . . Positioning -- once the heart of strategy -- is rejected as too static for today's dynamic markets and changing technologies. According to the new dogma, rivals can quickly copy any market position, and competitive advantage is, at best, temporary. . . But those beliefs are dangerous half-truths, and they are leading more and more companies down the path of mutually destructive competition.
Distinguishing Between Operational Effectiveness and Strategy
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Operational effectiveness and strategy are both essential to superior performance, which is the primary goal of any enterprise. But they work in very different ways. . . Operational effectiveness (OE) means performing similar activities better than rivals perform them. Operational effectiveness includes but is not limited to efficiency. It refers to any number of practices that allow a company to better utilize its inputs by, for example, reducing defects in products or developing better products faster. In contrast, strategic positioning means performing different activities from rivals or performing similar activities in different ways. . . Constant improvement in operational effectiveness is necessary to achieve superior profitability. However, it is not usually sufficient. Few companies have competed successfully on the basis of operational effectiveness over an extended period, and staying ahead of rivals gets harder every day.
Strategy is the creation of a unique and valuable position, involving a different set of activities. If there were only one ideal position, there would be no need for strategy. Companies would face a simple imperative -- win the race to discover and preempt it. The essence of strategic positioning is to choose activities that are different from rivals'. If the same set of activities were best to produce all varieties, meet all needs, and access all customers, companies could easily shift among them and operational effectiveness would determine performance.
Developing Strategic Fit Across Activities
Strategic positions emerge from distinct sources, which often overlap. First, positioning can be based on producing a subset of an industry's products or services. I call this variety-based positioning. . . A second basis for positioning is that of serving the needs of a particular customer group. I call this needs-based positioning. . . The third basis for positioning is that of segmenting customers who are accessible in different ways. I call this access-based positioning. . . Positioning choices determine not only which activities a company will perform and how it will configure individual activities but also how activities relate to one another. While operational effectiveness is about achieving excellence in individual activities, strategy is about combining activities.
The importance of fit among functional policies is one of the oldest ideas in strategy. Gradually, however, it has been supplanted on the management agenda. Rather than seeing the company as a whole, managers have turned to "core" competencies, "critical" resources, and "key" success factors. In fact, fit is a far more central component of competitive advantage than most realize. Strategic fit among many activities is fundamental not only to competitive advantage but also to the sustainability of that advantage. It is harder for a rival to match an array of interlocked activities than it is merely to imitate a particular sales-force approach, match a process technology, or replicate a set of product features. Positions built on activity systems are more sustainable than those built on individual activities.
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Finally, fit among a company's activities creates pressures and incentives to improve operational effectiveness, which makes imitation even ... more

nations framework convention on climate change

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  • A: HYBRID CARS: THE FUTURE OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL A: HYBRID CARS: THE FUTURE OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL HYBRID CARS: THE FUTURE OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL The current vehicles that are powered by gasoline pollute, but as technologies improve and the human way of life changes alternatively powered vehicles enter the automotive industry. These vehicles developed to achieve better gas mileage and to help slow the production of the gasses that cause Global Warming. The hybrid vehicle is one of the newest and most popular alternatively powered vehicle. Hybrid electric vehicles are energy efficient cars o...
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  • F: Mike Porter Researches F: Mike Porter Researches Mike Porter Researches Michael Porter On How To Marry Strategy & Operational Effectiveness The Harvard management guru argues that operations & strategy must fit to create a sustainable competitive advantage. For almost two decades, managers have been learning to play by a new set of rules. Companies must be flexible to respond rapidly to competitive and market changes. They must benchmark continuously to achieve best practice. They must outsource aggressively to gain efficiencies. . . Positioni...
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