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my own business Marketing

A firms international marketing program must generally be
modified and adapted to foreign markets. This international
marketing program uses strategies to accomplish its
marketing goals. Within each foreign nation, the firm is
likely to find a combination of marketing environment and
target markets that are different from those of its own home
country and other foreign countries. It is important that in
international marketing, product, pricing, distribution and
promotional strategies be adapted accordingly. In order for
an international firm to function properly, cultural, social,
economic, and legal forces within the country must be
clearly understood. The task of International marketing is
more difficult and risky than expected by many firms.

One of the most controlling factors of international
marketing is management. It is very important for managers
to recognize the differences as well as similarities in buyer
behavior. Many mistakes can occur if managers fail to
realize that buyers differ from country to country. It is the
international differences in buyer behavior, rather than
similarities, which cause problems in successful international
marketing. An international marketing manager is a
manager responsible for facilitating the exchange of
products between the organization and its customers or
clients. Sometimes an international marketing manager will
find difficulties in completing the exchange of products.
Many surprises in international business are undesirable
human mistakes. An international corporation must fully
understand the foreign environment before pursuing
business matters. Problems constantly crop up and many
times have unexpected results. Sometimes these
unexpected results are unavoidable. Other times they are
avoidable. To be sure those avoidable situations do not
occur, international marketing managers must be aware of
cultural differences.

Cultural differences take place among most nations of the
world. Differences in culture are one of the most significant
factors in an international company. All nationalities posses
unique characteristics, which are unknown to many
foreigners. Many of the top international businesses are
unaware of these cultural differences. It is very important to
understand these cultures in order to market a product
successfully. As an example, different nationalities have
different beliefs on how business matters should take place.
Where some countries prefer to work with a deadline other
countries can take this as being offensive. Many countries
feel it is an insult to be asked to work under a set time
period. A country may feel that a deadline is threatening
and may feel backed into a corner. On the other hand,
other countries try to expedite matters by setting deadlines.
To be effective in a foreign market it is necessary to
understand the local customs. Knowing what to do in a
foreign country is as important as knowing what not to do.
Failure to understand local customs can lead to serious
misunderstandings between business people. The simple
rejection of a cup of coffee can lead to total confusion. The
decline of an invite is sometimes considered an affront. To
avoid making blunders, a person must be able to discern
the difference between what is acceptable behavior and
what is not acceptable behavior. Violations of a local
custom can be insulting, and can cause uncomfortable
situations. To be a successful manager of international
marketing, one must be able to discern the differences as to
what must and must not be done. It is almost impossible to
attain complete knowledge and understanding of a foreign
culture.

As established, culture plays an important role in the drama
of international marketing. Of all the cultural aspects,
communication may be the most critical. It is certain that
communication has been involved in a number of cultural
confusion. Good communication linkages must be set
between a company and its customers, suppliers, its
employees, and the governments of the countries where it
performs business activities. Poor communication can
obviously cause various difficulties. One source of difficulty
among starting companies is that of effective
communication with potential buyers. The problem is that
there are many possible communication barriers.
Sometimes messages can be translated incorrectly,
regulations overlooked, and economic differences can be
ignored. Other times when the message does arrive, its
ineffectiveness can cause it to be of no value. Every now
and then a buyer will receive the message, but to the
companies disappointment, the message was sent incorrect.
It is normal in multinational businesses to send and receive
messages on a regular basis. Many well-known people
have incapacitated public speech introductions by using
inaccurate titles and names. Not all communication
problems are verbal. Some serious problems have
occurred as a result of non-verbal communication.
Non-verbal communication exist in numerous forms.
Sometimes a persons appearance can convey a stronger
message than intended. Untidy attire, for example, can be
more offensive in some nations than in others. The local
people often are willing to overlook most of the mistakes
made by tourist. On the ... more

my own business

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Presentation Of The Merge Between Renault Coorporation And Nissan Moto








Paper Topic: Presentation of the successful merge of RENAULT corporation and NISSAN motors!






Term Paper due on April 26th, 2001

In 1999, RENAULT, a French midsize automaker company decided to create an alliance with Japans NISSAN Motors. This operation has transformed the company into a global player, inside the very competitive market of worldwide vehicular distribution. By taking over 36.8% of Nissan's capital, Renault decided to send Carlos Ghosn, as new manager from Nissan, in order for him to install a Nissan Revival Plan (NRP). Actually, this plan has been made in order for both corporations to restore profitability, and acquire and increase market shares in Japan. My paper presents and describes the different aspects of this successful merging operation between two cultural opposites way of managing and running business. In other words, it shows the differences and changes that have been brought by Renault Corporation. First, it presents the major leadership role played by Carlos Ghosn in successfully restoring Nissans health. Secondly, it introduces the Nissans Japanese way of running an organization, and the main changes made by Renault organization, a western European firm: showing the huge different gap between the two ways of managing businesses.

Carlos Ghosn has been charged to revive Nissan Motor Corporation. After working in turn-around situations at Renault in France and at Michelins U.S. operations, 46-year-old Brazilian-born Ghosn moved to Nissan Japan in 1999, and has vowed to quit if the auto maker isnt profitable by March, showing his characters determination. His leadership has been one of the main factors of the working of Nissan Revival. The question is what really makes him a leader? Actually, understanding the different characteristics of his personality really explains why this alliance has been successful, as Carlos Ghosn has been one of the principal actors of the merge between Renault and Nissan. Kenji Watanuki, director of Foreign Investment in Japan Development Corporation (FIND) describes him as the complete opposite of traditional Japanese managers: he has energy, charisma, and simplicity. He is saying what he is doing, and doing what he is saying. Moreover, the public opinion has been praising the personality of the new Nissan leader: A gaijin (foreigner) that comes to save Nissan, speaks frankly and has the reputation to work from 7 to 23 seems to appeal Japanese people curiosity.... Nicknamed Icebreaker, his skill at ignoring local business practices that stand in the way of making money has really shown Nissan organization his leadership. His behavior defies Japanese business habits and etiquette. For example, his way of managing has appeared to go against the very respectful relation that is supposed to exist between employees and managers inside Asiatic organization: no intermingling between workers at different levels of the company. Seeing him, a president coming down from the fifteen floors in order to shake hands and greet employees, or congratulate a future mother, has really surprised most of other Japanese top managers.  

When Carlos Ghosn and his team arrived in Tokyo, aberrations are blindingly obvious. The company has been falling down in the last twenty-six years in the domestic market, and in the last ten years in the global market. The company has one of the biggest debts of the automobile industry, and hasnt realized any profits through the last decade. By identifying Nissan emergencies and dramatizing the companys position, Renault policy was to present an electric and dramatic situation to public opinion, in order to make the stockholders accept their propositions. On one hand, this second part introduces and talks about the different aspects of Nissan before the arrival of Renault, and on the other hand, shows what are the changes brought by Renault Corporation, a west-European organization.
The three main problems of Nissan Motors organization are a lack of leadership, no long-term vision and a need to centralize some of its aspects. First, Nissan organization was the caricature of a Japanese bureaucratic organization where power sits nowhere. Sawako Takeuchi, professor at the University of Tokyo, describes that individuals dont express themselves, and the force is in the group. There is inexistence of leadership! Secondly, the company hasnt been elaborating any long-term vision for their own guideline. Toshiyuki Shiga, today senior ... more

my own business

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