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Cloning is a process that has been debated for decades, and all the arguments
are now coming to a head. The thought of cloning has been around since the turn
of the century, but was not given much publication until the genre of science
fiction pursued it in novels, comics, magazines and television shows in the
mid-1950s. When Dolly, a sheep, was cloned, many people, including
scientists, religious leaders, politicians, and common people, were held in
fascination as the cloning process was explained to them on every major network
television channel. People watched as the theory was put to use in certain
stages of sheep and frogs being cloned. Many people also came to the realization
that cloning is a scientific blight upon humanity, which should not be pursued
any further. Cloning will, for the most part, degrade the ethics and civility of
humanity until the population is either: a) no longer recognizably human, or b)
subjected to various forms of barbarianism including slavery, mass production of
spare humans, and the coercement of the gene pool. Cloning, if stopped,
will leave many resources free for other scientific pursuits that could better
humanity, or raise the overall standard of living. The freed manpower could also
be put to more useful scientific tasks, such as food manipulation, or ecology
control. If the research of cloning is not stopped, the end result could well be
a eugenics war, or the inevitable death of the most powerful species on the
planethumanity. Large majorities of people still presume that cloning will
better society, and that the level of technological improvement gained in the
short term justifies the few minor adjustments that would accommodate the
new & improved society. These same people propagate the use of cloning
to harvest the extra bodies for needed body parts, as opposed to people donating
parts, and having people who need the organs sign a waiting list. Another
argument for cloning is that individuals with desirable characteristics could be
cloned as substitutes; e.g., a strong man could be cloned for construction
workers, a smart person could be cloned for scientific R&D, a man with
musical ability could be cloned to help an orchestra. None of the above-stated
arguments are compelling enough to merit cloning as an ethical line of research.
The flaws included within each pro-cloning statement are innumerable, but, due
to space constraints, only a few will be mentioned. Harvesting bodies for organs
is one of the most primitive and savage ideas ever put forth by human society,
especially considering that we are eclipsing the twenty-first century. To waste
time and manpower on an obviously immoral cause is despicable. To create a human
is to care for and nourish it until it is ready to face the world on its own.
If a clone wants to donate an organ it is entirely up to the clone, not the
creator. It is similar to becoming impregnated and then selling the baby to
science for dissection. Cloning people for various tasks originally relegated to
the clonee is not unlike slavery in that the clone is given no consideration as
to what its wants and desires are. As a society, people should fell ashamed
to have put forth the proposition of creating slaves; how is a clones rights
and privileges any different from the original persons? Clones should not be
considered to be of a lower standard than naturally conceived humans are.
Having, hopefully, successfully refuted the pro-cloning stance, it is time to
support the reasons for stopping cloning research and implementation. To start,
the topics of clone/original discrimination will be pursued, followed by the
topic of eugenics. When a clone is created, the world will gaze in wonder, as
the marvel of technological science is an exact replica of a human being, down
to the last strand of hair. When the planet is teeming with clones, the world
will whimper in fear as they see unoriginal humans taking what precious
resources we have left. This will, in all likelihood, lead to a new sort of
discrimination, in which clones are the ostracized group, and humans are the
superiors. It will be reminiscent of former times when Blacks and Indians
were treated with contempt and suffered ridicule. This is all on the premise
that there will be more humans than clones, of course. If the planet ends up
with more clones than humans, well, we originals are out of luck. Theres no
other possibility. Every human being has in their genes the desire to live, even
if it means at ... more
Find essay on Moral Theory And
Saint Thomas Aquinas, as a philosopher, wrote several works that
justified Christianity in a philosophical context, taking cue on Aristotle's old
writings. Naturally, Aquinas took up on the Church's
"ultra-conservative" views on sexuality and worked to rationalize them
through his own theory of natural law. Aquinas argues against any form of sex
where the intention to produce children is not involved. He explains this
through his theory of natural law, where sex is purely for the purpose of
reproduction to ensure the continuance of the human race, only in the context of
a monogamous relationship, and not for simple physical pleasure. There are many
laws that Saint Thomas Aquinas speaks of, such as eternal law, human law, divine
law, and natural law. All humans are part of "God's plan" and
therefore subject to eternal law, where we are guided to God's
"supernatural end in a higher way" (47). According to Aquinas, humans
in particular follow God's eternal law through a natural law, and inborn
instinct to do good. Something is said to be part of natural law if "there
is a natural inclination to it" and if "nature does not produce the
contrary," (51-52). Natural law includes such ideas as self-preservation,
union of the male and the female, and education of the young, which is easily
found in nature. Humans also have a unique knowledge of God and were meant to
live in a society. Aquinas explains that even though concepts such as slavery
and personal possessions are not found alone in nature, they were created by
human reason, and in such cases "the law of nature was not changed but
added to" (52). Because we can do such things, we are separated from the
rest of God's creatures. After explaining his theory of natural law, Aquinas
goes on to explain sexuality in the context of it. According to him,
"promiscuity is contrary to the nature of man" because "to bring
up a child requires both the care of the mother who nourishes him and even more
the care of the father to train and defend him and to develop him in internal
and external endowments" (78). Therefore, he finds fornification to be a
mortal sin because "it is contrary to the good of the upbringing of the
offspring" (79). Curiously, though, he does not bring up the more likely
scenario where fornification does not result in the impregnation of the woman.
His reasoning makes much better sense in the case of adultery. Not only does it
upset one's obligations to his family, but also because the Ten Commandments
specifically condemn adultery as a great sin. The Ten Commandments are God's
laws and are not relative, so there is no disputing their validity. However,
Aquinas' argument that monogamy is "natural" for humans is not easily
justified. If we look carefully at nature, most mammals have to be raised by
their parents just as humans are, but only for a few years. Also, in many cases,
the mother may raise her young with a different male, or on her own altogether.
Therefore, this makes it harder for Aquinas to appeal to natural law to prove
his case for monogamy and life-long relationships. Also, Aquinas does not agree
that a male should have the option of leaving a female who has had a child even
if it is properly provided for, making an indirect case against divorce (79).
Curiously, in Islam, the Koran allows divorce and remarriage, and it is based
for the most part on the very same Bible that Aquinas defended. Aquinas makes
clear that sex is right only when it is for the purpose of reproduction and it
should only be between a male and female in a monogamous relationship; all other
forms are sinful. However, he brings up a very striking exception. The acts of
fornification or adultery are not considered sins at all if they are performed
under the command of God (52). This is simply a case of common sense, but it
explains clearly any such indiscrepancies to natural law in the Bible. Aquinas
goes on to define more serious mortal sins which he refers to as indecent sex.
This includes homosexuality and bestiality. He quotes bestiality from the Bible:
"'[Joseph] accused his brothers of the worst sin they had relations with
cattle'" (80). Perhaps he is right, but homosexuality, on the other hand,
was accepted in societies even before Aquinas' time. For instance, the ancient
Greeks accepted intercourse between a younger and older man as a higher form
love. Even if Aquinas tried to ... more
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