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mode of production Genetically Altered Food

Genetic modification of organisms in general is a biotechnological process that
forces genes to behave according to certain characteristics. Changing
characteristics of organisms is based on changing their DNA (tech
deoxyribonucleic acid; the acid which carries genetic information in a cell). It
is being used for modifying genes in plants, animals or micro-organisms. It is
being also used especially with food in order to improve the nutritious quality,
make less use of chemicals such as pesticides, which proved to be extremely
harmful, and sometimes to add flavour. Genetically modified food (GMF) is
considered one of the modern production improvements and the largest food
experiments in the worlds history. However, it is very vital to dispel
misconception about the nature of food. GMF is a mixed blessing which has a lot
of benefits but at the same time may arouse problems. It has many good aspects,
such as making plants ripen faster, improving the species taste and look, and
providing Third World countries with healthier and cheaper food. Genetic
modification of food has won the admiration of a lot of people, including
myself, because of its new and attractive accomplishments, but at the same time
we should take into consideration its disadvantages and try to find ways to
avoid them. Genetically modified foodstuffs have several disadvantages which I
believe are possibly avoidable through research and experiments. Most of the
time, the sale of GMFs is being permitted without posing the risks and without
informing the public with the possible danger. This of course is a violation of
human rights which can Nagi2 easily be avoided by simply informing consumers of
the characteristics of the product. When genetic engineers insert new genes into
any organism, it can lead to disruption and unpredictable changes in the pattern
and structure of the new genetic function. "In fact, the process of
inserting genes is quite random and can damage normal genes " (Genetic
Engineered Food - A Serious Health Risk 3). Therefore, harmful substances may
appear unexpectedly and can possibly create viruses and new dangerous diseases.
Therefore, it is the obligation of experts to examine GM products before making
them available to the public in order to avoid undesirable diseases. A common
example is, when some people who are allergic to certain kinds of food such as
fish eat genetically modified products such as tomatoes which were injected with
genes similar to these fish, they get easily affected by allergens. Also, GMFs
might contain toxins, which may negatively affect human beings. An experiment
run on rats by feeding them with GM potatoes affected their digestive tracks
caused changes in some of their organ weights and caused adverse effects on
their immune system(south pacific consumer protection programme1). Such
experiments show the importance of thoroughly examining GM products and making
sure of their safety on humans. In addition to that, there are long-term effects
with reasons not yet identified. That could also be avoided by further research
and continued experiments. GMF is now entering the market with an increasing
rate. Products include tomatoes, corn, potatoes and soybeans. A main problem is
that the issue of labelling these products is not yet widely used. Most
developed countries have adopted laws Nagi 3 that require product labelling of
ingredients, fats, vitamin, protein and carbohydrate. These nutrition
information provides consumers with a level of awareness and choice. Similarly,
GMF producers are obliged to label their products. They have to provide their
customers with all necessary information about the produce. This is the least
that could be done to preserve the rights of consumers to know and decide for
themselves. Labelling is then one possible choice that could help in avoiding
some of the GMFs dangers. People have the right to know if the food they are
consuming is genetically modified whether it is a matter of health, preference
or just a matter of taste" Surveys consistently find that 85-90 % of
consumers want clear labelling of all genetically engineered foods"(Genetic
Engineered Food- A Serious Health Risk 2). Moreover, it is necessary to label
food if the nutritional content is changed. Take tomatoes for example; they are
a source of Vitamin C, but if through modification they lose this characteristic
(Vitamin C ), consumers definitely have the right to know. The wrong treatment
of GM crops may cause several environmental risks. It was proved that GM crops
are easy to grow in most kinds of soils. They can grow in land that is prone to
drought or erosion in addition to soils with highly salt acid conditions. They
are also capable ... more

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Fordism and scientific managem

FORDISM, SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AND THE LESSONS FOR CONTEMPORARY ORGANISATIONS

Fordism and Scientific Management are terms used to describe management that had application to practical situations with extremely dramatic effects.  Fordism takes its name from the mass production units of Henry Ford, and is identified by an involved technical division of labour within companies and their production units.  Other characteristics of Fordism include strong hierarchical control, with workers in a production line often restricted to the one single task, usually specialised and unskilled. Scientific management, on the other hand,  “originated” through Fredrick Winslow Taylor in 1911, and in very basic terms described the one best way work could be done and that the best way to improve output was to improve the techniques or methods used by the workers. (Robbins p.38)
Many comparisons can be made between the two theories, such as the mechanisation, fragmentation and specialisation of work and that a lack of intellectual or skilled content will speed up the work at hand. Fordism's mechanisation of mass production further emphasised many of Taylor’s popular beliefs about management being divorced from human affairs and emotions, using ‘humans as instruments or machines to be manipulated by their leaders’ (Hersey p.84).  Fordism fused and emphasised the scientific methods to get things done by Ford’s successful mass-production processes. Contrasts also exist between the two theories. Fordism dehumanisied the worker whereas scientific management convinced the workers that their goals could be readily achieved along with their employers goals, therefore they should all work together in this direction.   Fordism suited industrial companies participating in mass production, whereas Scientific Management could be used in many types of organisation. Large companies such as Ford Motors, The Reichskuratorium fur Wirtschaftkichkeit (RKW) in Germany examples these theories in practice. These theories of the past are lessons for the way modern organisations are run today. Managers now realise that they should treat their workers more democratically and since the mid-70’s, sweeping changes in markets and technology have encouraged managers and manufacturers to use greater product diversity and more flexible methods of production. Movements towards a more flexible organisation have become apparent.  Examples of orgainisations such as Nissan, NASA and Toyota serve as modern day examples of post-Fordism and depict movement towards a modified Scientific Management.

Comparisons that can be made include Fordism's mechanisation of mass production and Taylor’s attempts at using employees as machines. Taylor designed this using his principles of management that included developing a science for each element of work and finding the quickest way the job could be done. Henry Ford’s ideal types of Fordist production system included using fixed and dedicated machines in individuals work, rather than turning the employee into a machine. (Hollinshead 1995)

With Taylor attempting to prove to the world that there was a science to management and that the quickest way was the best way, he attacked the incompetence of managers for their inefficiencies in running the railroads and factories. Using time and motion studies, Taylor achieved productivity increases of up to 200 per cent. (Dunphy, 1998, p.4). His thoughts were echoed by others: during a 1910 Interstate Commerce Commission hearing, Louis D. Brandeis argued that US railroads could save a million dollars a day if they introduced scientific management into their operations (Oakes, 1996). Taylor showed the world that the methodical and scientific study of work could lead to improved efficiency. He believed that by defining clear guidelines for workers many improvements could be made to the production of goods. Fordism like Scientific Management in the newly mechanised industries of the early 20th century emphasised that efficiency came from precision in job design, clear division of responsibilities and tight policing of implementation (Taylor, 1911). Taylorism and Fordism were consistent with notions of the organisation as “ a ‘military machine’ first developed by Frederick the Great of Prussia, and later refined by Henri Fayol”. (Taplin, 1995, p.430)

Scientific Management encouraged firms to improve efficiency by analysing individual processes of industrial production and then recreating them to produce maximum output from any given size labor force. (Hudson, 1997) Ford's production-line innovations compounded scientific management’s efficiencies into the economy. Taylor believed it would be best to scientifically select, train, teach and develop ... more

mode of production

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