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Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where
people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who
were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied
opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When
these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of
people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise
have had. These gains have led to very real changes. Affirmative action programs
have not eliminated racism, nor have they always been implemented without
problems. However, there would be no struggle to roll back the gains achieved if
affirmative action policies were ineffective. The implementation of affirmative
action was America's first honest attempt at solving a problem, it had
previously chosen to ignore. In a variety of areas, from the quality of health
care to the rate of employment, blacks still remain far behind whites. Their
representation in the more prestigious professions is still almost
insignificant. Comparable imbalances exist for other racial and ethnic
minorities as well as for women. Yet, to truly understand the importance of
affirmative action, one must look at America's past discrimination to see why,
at this point in history, we must become more "color conscious".
History Of Discrimination In America: Events Leading To Affirmative Action. The
Declaration of Independence asserts that "all men are created equal."
Yet America is scarred by a long history of legally imposed inequality. Snatched
from their native land, transported thousands of miles-in a nightmare of disease
and death-and sold into slavery, blacks in America were reduced to the legal
status of farm animals. A Supreme Court opinion, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857),
made this official by classifying slaves as a species of "private
property." Even after slavery was abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment in
1865, American blacks, other minorities, and women continued to be deprived of
some of the most elementary right of citizenship. During the Reconstruction,
after the end of the Civil War, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868,
making blacks citizens and promised them the "equal protection of the
laws." In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment was passed, which gave blacks the
right to vote. Congress also passed a number of civil rights laws barring
discrimination against blacks in hotels, theaters, and other places. However,
the South reacted by passing the "Black Codes, " which severely
limited the rights of the newly freed slaves, preventing them in most states
from testifying in courts against whites, limiting their opportunities to find
work, and generally assigning them to the status of second or third class
citizen. White vigilante groups like the Klu Klux Klan began to appear, by
murdering and terrorizing blacks who tried to exercise their new rights.
"Legal" ways were also found for circumventing the new laws; these
included "grandfather clauses", poll taxes, white only primary
elections, and constant social discrimination against and intimidation of
blacks, who were excluded form education and from any job except the most
menial. In 1883, the Supreme Court declared a key civil rights statute, one that
prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, unconstitutional. And in
1896, Plessy v. Ferguson (163 U.S. 537 ), the Court declared that the
state of Louisiana had the right to segregate their races in every public
facility. Thus began the heyday of "Jim Crow" legislation. In Justice
John Marshall Harlan's lone dissent, he realized it was a mockery. He wrote,
" We boast of the freedom enjoyed by our peoples above all other peoples.
But it is difficult to reconcile that boast with a state of the law which,
practically, puts a brand of servitude and degregation upon a large class of our
fellow citizens, our equals before the law. This thin disguise of 'equal'
accommodations for passengers in railroad coaches will not mislead anyone, or
atone for the wrong this day done." Not until sixty years later, in Brown
v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (347 U.S. 483 ), was Plessy
overturned. Chief Justice earl Warren declared the unanimous opinion of the
court by saying: "We cannot turn the clock back to 1868, when the Amendment
was adopted, or even to 1896, when Plessy v. Ferguson was written." In
today's world, "separate educational facilities are inherently
unequal." This decision sparked racial tensions all across America. in
1957, President Eisenhower had to call federal troops into Little Rock,
Arkansas, after the state's governor forcibly barred black children from
entering white schools. In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined, for not
moving to the back of a public bus, ... more
Find essay on Medical School
NAJHL Hockey League
The Springfield Statesmen Hockey Organization will play in the North American
Junior Hockey League (NAJHL). The NAJHL is a Division A junior hockey league,
which is the highest level of junior hockey, consisting of eight teams located
in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. The league is comprised
predominantly of players 16 -20 years old. Each team in the league plays a
twenty- game schedule. In addition, league members play in a mid-season all-star
game and in a league tournament that culminates the season by declaring a league
champion. The team will play its home games in the Ice Palace, leased from the
City of Springfield. The Ice Palace has a maximum capacity of 3,000 people. It
includes four locker rooms, eight restroom facilities, an arcade room, an
athletic training facility, a weight room, and a large room available for
private functions. Description of the Community The City of Springfield, which
hosts the team, has a population of 110,000; plus an additional 559,000 within a
60-mile radius. The largest age group for both men and women is 35-44. The
city's government is a municipality with a mayor and 10 aldermen that represent
an area of the city. Springfield is the state capital of Illinois and therefore
houses many of the state's agencies. Its economic base depends upon state and
federal agencies, three major hospitals, three colleges, and two state
universities (University of Illinois at Springfield and Southern Illinois
University School of Medicine). The cost of living in Springfield has an index
of 97.4; the national average is an index of 100. Thirty-five percent of the
households in Springfield earn between $25,000 and $49,000. The three main
industries providing employment are the public sector, services, and retail
trade. Springfield has an unemployment rate of 5.4%. Thirty-three percent of
Springfieldians have a high school diploma and fourteen percent have a
bachelor's degree. Springfield has 36 public schools and 29 non-public schools
employing over 2,600 teachers. The YMCA, YWCA, Boys and Girls Club of America,
and the Springfield Rotary Club offer social service to the community.
Springfield offers 6 museums (including the Illinois State Museum), two zoos, a
minor league baseball team, and numerous state and national historic sites.
Parks offered include seven parks in the Springfield Park District, a wildlife
sanctuary, botanical gardens, and Lincoln's New Salem State Park. The Illinois
Symphony Orchestra, Springfield Chamber Orchestra, Springfield Muni Opera, and
Springfield Theatre Center house the city's performing arts. Natural resources
of the area include Lake Springfield and the Sangamon River. Numerous highways
and Interstates 55 and 72 allow for travel in and out of the city. Capital
Airport provides air service to the community with service provided by American
Eagle, Great Lakes, United Express, and Trans World Express. Five trunkline
railroads serve Sangamon County and Amtrak provides passenger service.
Intra-city bus service is available via the Springfield Mass Transit District,
and Greyhound provides interstate bus service (Greater Springfield Chamber of
Commerce, 1999). Target Population The athletic services provided by the
Springfield Statesmen Hockey Organization (SSHO) serves primarily 16-20 year old
hockey players seeking an opportunity to eventually play for a major college or
professional hockey team. Players will be recruited and drafted from national
and international midget (a younger group of players) leagues, with players
coming from as far away as Europe and Russia to play. Due to the expenses to
play the sport most players come from upper-middle and upper class families. The
entertainment services provided by the team serves an audience of all ages.
Working class families provide the largest audience base. Special seating will
be provided for families as well as group ticket pricing. A private room is
available for larger parties. The facility is handicapped accessible, and
smoking is prohibited in the arena. Financing The SSHO is financed primarily by
player fees (players must pay $5,000 each to play in the league), ticket sales,
and advertising sales. Additional funding will come from concession sales, team
merchandise sales, booster club fundraisers, and team fundraisers (the Summer
Golf Outing with the team and a Silent Auction of team memorabilia). Legal Basis
for Service The SSHO is a for-profit corporation, incorporated in the State of
Illinois and registered with the Federal Government as a for-profit corporation.
Annually, the major shareholders for the team file taxes with the Illinois
Department of Revenue and the Internal Revenue Service. PURPOSE STATEMENT
SPRINGFIELD STATESMEN HOCKEY ORGANIZATION The primary purpose of the SSHO is to
enhance the development of its players through top-quality coaching, extensive
practice time, and a rigorous game schedule. The Organization is committed ... more
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M: Middle Ages
Middle Ages The history of the modern world derives from thousands of years of human history. Embedded in its history are the many eras of man which have constructed our modern learning, art, beliefs, and order. The middle ages, although represented as dark, backwards, and idle, were in fact a bridge linking the classical and modern world. Medieval society may not have been in a sense glorious, but the era of itself was a prime foundation of the modern worlds newfound stability, a reviv...
E: Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise hav...
D: NAJHL Hockey League
NAJHL Hockey League The Springfield Statesmen Hockey Organization will play in the North American Junior Hockey League (NAJHL). The NAJHL is a Division A junior hockey league, which is the highest level of junior hockey, consisting of eight teams located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. The league is comprised predominantly of players 16 -20 years old. Each team in the league plays a twenty- game schedule. In addition, league members play in a mid-season all-star game and in a lea...
I: A Timeline of the Holocaust
A Timeline of the Holocaust The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and their collaborators as a central act of state during World War II. In 1933 approximately nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed. Although Jews were the primary victims, hundreds of thousands of Roma (Gypsies) and at least 250,000 mentally or p...
C: Human 2
Human 2 There are two things that make up a human: god and animals. Humans alone have morality, ability to know the principles of right and wrong behavior, and ethical judgment. Alexander Pope, Shakespeare, and Gilgamesh, these people and books, use concepts of human beings are: morality, divinity, and integrity. In todays world it is shown that humans are very easily divinity and animal. Concerns and perspective status of a person and behavior is what leads humans through life. One of these ...
A: Falling Leaves By Adeline Yen
Falling Leaves By Adeline Yen The Irreverence of Female Independence in China For years, the world has been oblivious to the painful, degrading traditions toward women that take place behind the Bamboo Curtain of China. Falling Leaves , by Adeline Yen Mah, unveils the darker side of Chinese culture through her eyes as an unwanted Chinese daughter. Shocking mistreatment, of not only the author, but also the females in her extended family keep suspense alive throughout the book. My heart sob...
L: Teen Alcoholism
Teen Alcoholism Teen Alcoholism: Problems for Americas Youth In 1991, a study by the United States Surgeon Generals office stated that 8 million out of the 20.7 million young people in grades 7 through 12 drank alcoholic beverages every week. It went on to say that 454,000 of those youngsters reported weekly binges (Claypool 21). In the United States and all over the world underage teens are drinking, and it may be because they just dont know about alcohol and its effects (Monroe ...
: Alcohol on Academics
Alcohol on Academics Alcohol, when consumed in reason, can be fine. But when it is taken in great quantities it can be very detrimental to a student. Heather Wilson and Jeremy Foster wrote a perspective on drugs and alcohol in a book aimed to warn people about the dangers of alcohol and drugs. Here is there account. During parents weekend, she, her roommate, and their parents went to her best friend's room and found her soaked in blood and tears on the dorm-room floor. Heather's friend had a his...
S: Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering: A leap in to the future or a leap towards destruction? Introduction Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but n...
C: Cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis CYSTIC FIBROSIS I am the doctor for your hospital and have prepared the following paper for you to look at and possibly use. It includes information on what cystic fibrosis really is, what treatments there are, what you two can do for your child, and how it is inherited. I hope this document is useful to you in your incoming struggle against this horrible disease. It is good to know that you are not alone. Every day four children in the United States are diagnosed as having cysti...
H: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome On any given day in the United States... 10,657 babies are born. (US Census Bureau). Twenty of these babies are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Twenty may seem as though it is not a lot, but when you compare it to the fact that this number is more than HIV positive, Muscular Dystrophy, Spina Bifida and Down Syndrome combine it creates a whole new parameter. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a direct result of a womans competed disregard for the fetus. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FA...
O: Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen Henrik Ibsen was born at Skien in Norway on March 20, 1828. When he was eight, his father went bankrupt. This event made a deep impression upon him. After they went bankrupt, his family moved to a small farm north of the town where they lived in poverty. Henrik was forced to attend a small local school. He received a substandard education. In 1843, the family returned to town. Unfortunately they were still poor. Ibsen came from a very dysfunctional family. His domineering father was...
Clemenceau Georges Clemenceau Early Life: -Born on September 28th, 1841 in Vendee, France -Benjamin Clemenceau, his father, was a supporter of the 1848 revolution and was his sons role model. -Georges grew up strongly believing in Republican views. Education: -Trained to be a doctor. -Not much else is known about his education and schooling. Achievements: -With a group of students, he wrote Le Travail. This was seized by the police and Georges spent 73 days in prison. -After he was released, ...
L: Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson 1. Jefferson had destroyed political traditions. From his contradictions and defecting his priciples, Jefferson destroyed the political precedent and is a exemplatory hypocrite, which can be seen throughout his administration. Jefferson was an admired statesman who was grappling unsuccessfully with the moral issue of slavery. Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence, opposed slavery his whole life, yet he never freed his own slaves. He championed Enlighten...
19th Century Women Authors
19th Century Women Authors 19th Century Women Authors Some of the most influential women authors of all time lived in the 19th century. These women expressed their inner most thoughts and ideas through their writings. They helped to change society, perhaps without knowing it, through poetry, novels, and articles. Emily Dickinson, Harriet Jacobs, Kate Chopin, Louisa May Alcott, and Elizabeth Oakes Smith are the best-known controversial and expressive women authors of their time. On December 10, 1...
Affirmative Action For the past several years the argument over affirmative action has been a highly debated topic. The issue at hand is whether or not affirmative action is reverse discrimination or not. Affirmative action by definition \means taking positive steps to end discrimination, to prevent its recurrence, and to create new opportunities that were previously denied to qualified women and people of color,\ (Work & Family). The reason that affirmative action is so controversial is becau...
Aids AIDS - What's new ? ------------------- Is the message getting through? We already know enough about AIDS toprevent its spread, but ignorance, complacency, fear and bigotry continue to stop many from taking adequate precautions to stop the risk of getting the aids virus. We know enough about how the infection is transmitted to protect ourselves from it without resorting to such extremes as mandatory testing, enforced quarantine or total celibacy. But too few people are getting the AIDS mess...
Willa Cather There are few female authors that have had an impact on literature as great as that of Willa Cather. Not only was she an exquisite author, but she broke through into writing during a time when few female authors were successful. Her life, which was directly influential to her writing, was of a simple nature. However, she was able to over come a drab, mundane life, and turn her experiences into stories that would be enjoyed by many generations. Willa Siebert Cather was born in her ma...
south Police In South Africa In the old South Africa before 1994 the police officers job was to squash subversion and his main obstacle was that most people hated him. Today after the 1994 years election the South African police force main job is to stop the growing crime rate. Which seems impossible for them to manage. The police officers main hurdle is his own lack of modern policing skills. Many policemen are barely literate, and are no good at the administrative tasks on which they spend sev...
ritalin Parents throughout the country are being pressured and compelled by schools to give psychiatric drugs to their children. Teachers, school psychologists, and administrators commonly make dire threats about their inability to teach children without medicating them. They sometimes suggest that only medication can stave off a bleak future of delinquency and occupational failure. They even call child protective services to investigate parents for child neglect and they sometimes testify again...
Cuba and embargo
Cuba and embargo By: patty young E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Cuba and the Affects of the Embargo The island nation of Cuba, located just ninety miles off the coast of Florida, is home to 11 million people and has one of the few remaining communist regimes in the world. Cubas leader, Fidel Castro, came to power in 1959 and immediately instituted a communist program of sweeping economic and social changes. Castro allied his government with the Soviet Union and seized and nationalized billions of ...
Psychology b.f skiner
Psychology b.f skiner B.F. Skinner Running head: B.F. Skinner and His Influence in Psychology B.F. Skinner and His Influence in Psychology Abstract B.F. Skinner was one of the most influential theorists in modern psychology. His work was very important and has been studied by many for years. Skinner was a very straightforward man and a very educated man. His theories have helped mankind in many ways. He has studied the behavior patterns of many living organisms. Skinner was a well-published writ...
Adam\'s Paper Fuel. Flame. Fire. Inferno. Ash. Historically, the word holocaust meant a religious rite in which an offering was completely consumed by fire. In current times the word holocaust has changed to a darker more tragic meaning and refers to more than a religious sacrifice. During World War II, a fire raged throughout Eastern Europe. Guns, bombs, and military groups did not ignite this fire. This fire burned intensely in the hearts of men -- sparked by centuries-old prejudice. One ...
Wmen And Sexism
Wmen And Sexism We [women] are, as a sex, infinitely superior to men. Elizabeth Stanton (prominent woman suffragist) - (excerpted from One Woman, One Vote by Wheeler, pg. 58) William Shakespeare - (excerpted from Hamlet, Act I, scene 2) This quote made by Stanton in 1890 shows many of the feministic beliefs held by the women of today. And the quote made by Shakespeare holds many of the same thoughts shared by men. The battle of the sexes is prevalent everywhere and is applicable to anything. F...
NAZISM The National Socialist German Workers\' Party almost died one morning in 1919. It numbered only a few dozen grumblers\' it had no organization and no political ideas. But many among the middle class admired the Nazis\' muscular opposition to the Social Democrats. And the Nazis themes of patriotism and militarism drew highly emotional responses from people who could not forget Germany\'s prewar imperial grandeur. In the national elections of September 1930, the Nazis garnered nearly 6.5 mi...