Louis Riel


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louis riel Word Count: 477

The Metis were partly french and
partly indian. Their leader was called Louis riel. Following
the Union of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North
West Company in 1821, trading had been reorganized in
order to reduce expenses. Since there was no longer
competition in the fur trade, it was unnecessary to have two
or more posts serving a single trading district. For this
reason, some posts had been closed and the number of
brigades reduced. This reorganization had led to some
unemployment amoung Metis who for years had been
working in the fur trade. The Hudson Bay Company had
attempted to assist these these men by encouraging them to
engage in farming in what is now South Manitoba. A few
families take to agriculture, but most of the metis found it
difficult. To them, the excitement and the adventure of the
buffalo hunt held more appeal than farming. Hundreds of
Metis were content to earn a living by hunting buffalo,
making pemmican or finding employment as freight drivers.
After a while Canada bought Rupertsland from Hudson Bay
Company. When the Metis herd this they were alarmed.
They feared their religion,their language, their lands and their
old, free way of* life. They had known for some time that
Canada was busy constructing a colonists highway from
Lake Superior to the Red River. The situation became tense
surveyors were sent into the flow of settlers, and it was
considered a wise move to have the surveying well under
way before settlement began in earnest. It was decided to
use a system or land survey similar to that used in the
western part of the United States. Townships were to be
divided into thirty- six sections, each containing one square
mile or 640 acres. The sections were then to be divided into,
the quarter-section was thought to be enough land for each
family settling in the North West. (An interesting aspect of
the survey system was the plan of the setting asside two
sections in each township for the future support of education.
The idea to sell these sections at a later date and use the
money for the construction of schools.) When th survey
began, friction occured in those areas where the french
specking Metis had settled along the river, occupying long
narrow strips in the manner common in New France.
Attempts were made by the surveyors to avoid disturbing
the pattern, but in some cases the survey lines crossed the
narrow holdings, leading the Metis to believe the their land
was being taken away from them. Louis Riel Mon April 5,
92 ************ =============== Louis Riel was
the leader of the Metis. He was a black-bearded, handsome
young man, the son of the leader of a minor Metis revolt in
1849 against the Hudson's Bay Company. Born in the red
River region in 1944, Riel had been chosen as a possible
candidate for the priesthood and had stidied at the Jesuit
College de Montreal. However, he failed to complete his
religious studies and returned to the Red River in 1868,
looking for employment. His powers of eloquence and his
hot-tempered nature soon made him an outspoken defenter
of the Metis. ... more

louis riel

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Pitikwahanapiwiyin (poundmaker)

Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker)
Pitikwahanapiwiyin emerged as a political leader during the tumultuous years surrounding the extension of the treaty system and the influx of settlers into present-day Saskatchewan. Pitikwahanapiwiyin was recognized as a skilled orator and leader of his people by both Native and Non-native communities.
Born in about 1842 near Battleford in central Saskatchewan, Pitikwahanapiwiyin was the son of Sikakwayan, a Stoney shaman, and his Mtis wife. Pitikwahanapiwiyin grew up with his Plains Cree relatives under the influence of his maternal uncle Mistawasis (Big Child), a leading figure in the Eagle Hill (Alberta) area. In 1873 Isapo-Muxika (Crowfoot), Chief of the Blackfoot, following a Plains Indian custom, adopted Pitikwahanapiwiyin to replace one of his own sons who had been killed in battle.
In August 1876 Pitikwahanapiwiyin, as headman of one of the River People bands, was influential enough to speak at the Treaty No. Six negotiations held at Fort Carlton. Pitikwahanapiwiyin emerged as one of the spokespersons for a group critical of the treaty. Though Treaty No. Six was amended to include a 'famine clause,' Pitikwahanapiwiyin continued to express concerns and agreed to sign the treaty on 23 August only because the majority of his band favored it.
In the autumn of 1879, Pitikwahanapiwiyin, now chief, accepted a reserve and settled with 182 followers on 30 square miles along the Battle River about 40 miles west of Battleford. Frustrated by the government's failure to fulfill treaty promises, Pitikwahanapiwiyin became active in Indian politics: representing the Cree at inter-band meetings and acting as a spokesperson with the government. In July 1881 Pitikwahanapiwiyin acted as guide and interpreter during Governor-General Lord Lorne's trip from Battleford to Calgary. In June 1884, a Thirst Dance was held on the Poundmaker reserve to discuss the worsening situation of the Indians. By the middle of the month over 2,000 people had gathered. The Thirst Dance celebration was disrupted by the North-West Mounted Police pursuing an Indian accused of assaulting the farm instructor on an adjacent reserve. Violence between the Indian bands and the 90-man police force was averted by the peacekeeping efforts of Pitikwahanapiwiyin and Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear).
When news of the Mtis success at Duck Lake reached the Poundmaker reserve in March 1885, Pitikwahanapiwiyin decided to utilize the unrest and fears of government agents to negotiate necessary supplies. Joined by the Stonies, the Cree went to Battleford. Arriving on 30 March, Pitikwahanapiwiyin and his people found the town deserted. Efforts to open negotiations with Indian Agent Rae failed. Hungry and frustrated, some of Cree and Stonies began looting the empty homes in the Battleford area, despite Pitikwahanapiwiyin's attempts to stop them. The next day the combined Battleford bands moved west to the Poundmaker reserve and established a large camp east of Cutknife Creek. Though Pitikwahanapiwiyin was appointed the political leader and chief spokesperson for the combined bands, soldiers' lodge was also erected at the Cutknife camp. According to Plains Cree tradition, once erected the soldier's lodge, not the chief, was in control of the camp.
Lieutenant-Colonel Otter attacked the camp in the early morning of 2 May 1885. After seven hours of fighting, the Indians forced Otter to withdraw. At this point Pitikwahanapiwiyin stepped in and stopped the Indians from attacking the retreating troops. Following the Battle of Cutknife Hill on 2 May, Pitikwahanapiwiyin attempted to move the camp to the hilly country around Devil's Lake. The warriors leading the camp, however, prevented this retreat and began leading the combined tribes east to join Riel at Batoche. On 14 May, while passing through the Eagle Hills, the Battleford bands captured a wagon train carrying supplies for Colonel Otter's column. Once again Pitikwahanapiwiyin successfully intervened to prevent bloodshed and the twenty-one teamsters captured along with the wagons were taken prisoner.
Five days later the Battleford bands learned of the Mtis' defeat at Batoche. Regaining control of the combined bands, Pitikwahanapiwiyin sent Father Louis Cochin to Major-General Frederick Middleton asking for his peace terms. On 26 May, Pitikwahanapiwiyin surrendered his arms and his followers at Fort Battleford. He was immediately imprisoned.
On 17 August 1885 Pitikwahanapiwiyin's trial on the charge of treason-felony began in Regina before Judge Richardson. Regarded as second in importance only to Riel's, the ... more

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  • O: The Metis O: The Metis Word Count: 477 The Metis were partly french and partly indian. Their leader was called Louis riel. Following the Union of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company in 1821, trading had been reorganized in order to reduce expenses. Since there was no longer competition in the fur trade, it was unnecessary to have two or more posts serving a single trading district. For this reason, some posts had been closed and the number of brigades reduced. This reorganization had led to some unempl...
  • U: Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker U: Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker) Pitikwahanapiwiyin emerged as a political leader during the tumultuous years surrounding the extension of the treaty system and the influx of settlers into present-day Saskatchewan. Pitikwahanapiwiyin was recognized as a skilled orator and leader of his people by both Native and Non-native communities. Born in about 1842 near Battleford in central Saskatchewan, Pitikwahanapiwiyin was the son of Sikakwayan, a Stoney shaman, and his M...
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  •  : Louis Riel : Louis Riel Louis Riel Louis Riel - Patriote or Traitor? Louis Riel was born in 1844. He was captured and executed by Canadian authorities in November 16, 1885. He was a leader who gave up his life and time to fight for the right of the Metis, Indians and the western settlers. He was an well-educated young man fluent in both French and English. He was also selected as the Metis\'s spokesman to negotiate with the Canadian government. During the 1869-70, he led the rebel when Canada purchases Manitoba from th...
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  • Iono Iono Iono The Metis were partly french and partly indian. Their leader wascalled Louis riel. Following the Union of the Hudson\'s Bay Company and the North West Company in 1821, trading had been reorganized in order to reduce expenses. Since there was no longer competition in the fur trade, it was unnecessary to have two or more posts serving a single trading district. For this reason, some posts had been closed and the number of brigades reduced. This reorganization had led to some unemployment amou...
  • Louis Riel Louis Riel Louis Riel Louis Riel should not have been hung because he represented those who couldn\'t represent themselves. Louis Riel was disappointed with the way the Metis were, so he took it upon himself to represent the Metis and their rights. Even though the actions that followed, such as keeping the new governor out the colony, was illegal and very wrong. Riel risked it for the rights of the Metis. As for Thomas Scott, Riel has absolutely no legal right to have him shot, but Riel himself never touch...
  • Civil War History Notes Civil War History Notes Civil War History Notes HISTORY 311 NOTES - SEPTEMBER 24th until OCTOBER 24th HIS 311 SEPT 24 -1861- Civil War begins -Nov.-dec TRENT incident -1862-64-Alabama depredations -Oct.-St. Alban's rd. -1865- Reciprocity Tr. denounced -1866- Fenian Invasion -sub themes -public opinion & foreign policy -xtrnl coincide w/ intrnl issues -colonies and their costs COMPARISON OF CAN AND US -Can and US are parallel -major events, trade are shared -civil society devl'p same way -culture is same exc. QUE, L...
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  • Canada- Facts And Figures Canada- Facts And Figures Canada- Facts And Figures Education in Canada Education has two main goals: to give individuals the opportunity to develop themselves, and to provide society with the skills it needs to evolve in its best interests. Canada\'s educational system is based on finding a coordinated approach to the pursuit of these sometimes conflicting goals. Comprehensive, diversified, and available to everyone, the system reflects the Canadian belief in the importance of education. Education in Canada consists of ...
  • English and French Relations i English and French Relations i English and French Relations i English and French Relations in the 20th Century In the 20th Century, the relationship between English and French in Canada has deteriorated. French-English relations were already suffering and continued to do so before World War I. The two world wars and the depression years strained relations greatly. In the post-war years, the Quebecois began to organize, and in some cases, rebelled. The product of these events is a country, threatened with division. Relations b...
  • Pitikwahanapiwiyin (poundmaker) Pitikwahanapiwiyin (poundmaker) Pitikwahanapiwiyin (poundmaker) Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker) Pitikwahanapiwiyin emerged as a political leader during the tumultuous years surrounding the extension of the treaty system and the influx of settlers into present-day Saskatchewan. Pitikwahanapiwiyin was recognized as a skilled orator and leader of his people by both Native and Non-native communities. Born in about 1842 near Battleford in central Saskatchewan, Pitikwahanapiwiyin was the son of Sikakwayan, a Stoney shaman, and his M...
  • Louis riel Louis riel Louis riel Louis Riel - Patriote or Traitor? Louis Riel was born in 1844. He was captured and executed by Canadian authorities in November 16, 1885. He was a leader who gave up his life and time to fight for the right of the Metis, Indians and the western settlers. He was an well-educated young man fluent in both French and English. He was also selected as the Metiss spokesman to negotiate with the Canadian government. During the 1869-70, he led the rebel when Canada purchases Manitoba from the...
  • The Metis The Metis The Metis The Metis were partly french and partly indian. Their leader was called Louis riel. Following the Union of the Hudsons Bay Company and the North West Company in 1821, trading had been reorganized in order to reduce expenses. Since there was no longer competition in the fur trade, it was unnecessary to have two or more posts serving a single trading district. For this reason, some posts had been closed and the number of brigades reduced. This reorganization had led to some unemployment...
  • LOUIS RIEL LOUIS RIEL LOUIS RIEL Louis Riel should not have been hung because he represented those who couldn\'t represent themselves. Louis Riel was disappointed with the way the Metis were, so he took it upon himself to represent the Metis and their rights. Even though the actions that followed, such as keeping the new governor out the colony, was illegal and very wrong. Riel risked it for the rights of the Metis. As for Thomas Scott, Riel has absolutely no legal right to have him shot, but Riel himself never touch...
  • LOUIS RIEL LOUIS RIEL LOUIS RIEL Louis Riel should not have been hung because he represented those who couldnt represent themselves. Louis Riel was disappointed with the way the Mtis were, so he took it upon himself to represent the Mtis and their rights. Even though the actions that followed, such as keeping the new governor out the colony, was illegal and very wrong. Riel risked it for the rights of the Mtis. As for Thomas Scott, Riel has absolutely no legal right to have him shot, but Riel himself never touche...
  • The Metis The Metis The Metis The Metis were partly french and partly indian. Their leader wascalled Louis riel. Following the Union of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company in 1821, trading had been reorganized in order to reduce expenses. Since there was no longer competition in the fur trade, it was unnecessary to have two or more posts serving a single trading district. For this reason, some posts had been closed and the number of brigades reduced. This reorganization had led to some unemployment ...
  • Canada- Facts And Figures Canada- Facts And Figures Canada- Facts And Figures Education in Canada Education has two main goals: to give individuals the opportunity to develop themselves, and to provide society with the skills it needs to evolve in its best interests. Canada's educational system is based on finding a coordinated approach to the pursuit of these sometimes conflicting goals. Comprehensive, diversified, and available to everyone, the system reflects the Canadian belief in the importance of education. Education in Canada consists of 1...
  • LOUIS RIEL LOUIS RIEL LOUIS RIEL Louis Riel should not have been hung because he represented those who couldnt represent themselves. Louis Riel was disappointed with the way the Mtis were, so he took it upon himself to represent the Mtis and their rights. Even though the actions that followed, such as keeping the new governor out the colony, was illegal and very wrong. Riel risked it for the rights of the Mtis. As for Thomas Scott, Riel has absolutely no legal right to have him shot, but Riel himself never touche...