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levels of electronic NAFTA
In
January 1994, the United States, Mexico, and Canada implemented the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The goal of NAFTA is to create better
trading conditions through tariff reduction, removal of investment barriers, and
improvement of intellectual property protection. NAFTA continues to gradually
reduce tariffs on set dates and aims to eliminate all tariffs by the year 2004.
Before NAFTA was established, investing in Mexico was a difficult process.
Investors needed the Mexican Government's approval and were also required to
meet specific investment guidelines. These requirements necessitated investors
to export a set level of goods and services, utilize domestic goods and
services, and transfer technology to competitors. Under NAFTA, investors no
longer need government approval to invest and are treated as domestic investors.
NAFTA has also increased intellectual property rights and allowed companies to
obtain patents in Mexico and Canada. In the past, companies were hesitant to
export research and development intensive goods; with increased intellectual
property protection, however, exports of these goods has shown a definite
increase. As a result of better trading conditions, exports and imports of most
other goods have increased along with the research and development intensive
goods. In Mexico, the elimination of investment barriers has allowed investment
to expand. Increased trading and investment has then created many jobs, raised
the Gross Domestic Product, and lowered consumer prices. The macroeconomic
principles defined in Economics 103 relate to NAFTA's impact on aggregate supply
and demand, employment, investment, and their effects on national income. The
free trade established by MERCOSUR also involves countries within South America.
MERCOSUR, the Southern Common Market ( Mercado Common del Sur) was established
in 1991 after a series of other free trade treaties failed to meet the standards
of the countries involved. It is set up on the basis of free trade zones and
eventually to lead to a common market. Before MERCOSUR there was ALALC, the
Latin American Free Trade Association. It was formed in 1960 and set up free
trade zones through the periodic negotiations between the members of the
association. ALALC ended in the 1970's due to these negotiations because they
were left to the discretion of the countries involved and unfair practices
started to occur. After ALAC, came ALADI, the Latin American Integration
Association. Founded in 1980, it established economic preference zones instead
of free trade. This encouraged economic growth and increased actions and
agreements between countries that previously had no connections. In 1986
Argentina and Brazil signed a Treaty for Integration, Cooperation, and
Development which was originally set up to remove tariff barriers and tie
together the macroeconomic policies of the two countries. This Treaty is what
led to MERCOSUR. MERCOSUR is a process of integration to form a common market on
the foundations of open regionalism. In March of 1991 Paraguay and Uruguay
joined MERCOSUR and most recently Chile became a part of the market in 1996. The
goals set by the agreement are to create free transit of production goods and
lifting of non-tariff restrictions on transit goods. It was set up to adopt a
common trade policy with nations that are not a part of the market and to set up
a fixed common external tariff for all to follow. There are quite a few other
goals that was set by MERCOSUR including a clause that states that the countries
involved will be able to adjust their laws for the purpose of strengthening the
agreement. The main point of MERCOSUR is to set up free trade among South
American countries and to encourage new countries to join (americasnet.com).
Another related trade agreement conveying the benefits of international trade is
the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). A trade agreement that
conveys the positive outcomes of international trade is the General Agreement on
Trade and Tariffs (GATT). It was created in 1947 and like NAFTA promotes
international trade through the reduction of tariffs. Today, GATT encompasses
over one hundred countries and 90% of the world's trade goods (Sabir 1). There
have been eight different versions of GATT, each resulting in a new trade
agreement. The most recent is referred to as the Uruguay Round and is one of the
largest and most comprehensive trade pacts in history (Deng 1). The Uruguay
Round Agreement cuts tariffs by one-third, increases coverage for textiles,
clothing and agriculture and creates a new World Trade Organization
(Congressional Digest 258). The WTO settles dispute settlements, regulates the
policies agreed upon and reviews countries' trade practices and policies. In
addition, the Uruguay round proposes reductions in nontariff protective barriers
to trade (Gottheil 350). The Uruguay ... more

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History of the coputer




Generally, a computer is any device that can perform numerical Calculations --even an adding machine, an abacus, or a slide rule.  Currently, however, the term usually refers to an electronic device that can use a list of instructions, called a program, to perform calculations or to store, manipulate, and retrieve information.
Today's computers are marvels of miniaturization. Machines that once weighed 30 tons and occupied warehouse-size rooms now may  weigh as little as three pounds (1.4 kilograms) and can be carried in a                         suit pocket. The heart of today's computers are integrated circuits (ICs), sometimes called microchips, or simply chips. These tiny silicon wafers can contain millions of microscopic electronic components and are designed for many specific operations: some control an entire computer (CPU, or central processing unit, chips); some perform millions of mathematical operations per second (math oprocessors);  others can store more than 16 million characters of information at one time (memory chips).
In 1953 there were only about 100 computers in use in the entire world. Today hundreds of millions of computers form the core of electronic products, and more than 110 million programmable               computers are being used in homes, businesses, government offices, and universities for almost every conceivable purpose.  
Computers come in many sizes and shapes. Special-purpose, or  dedicated, computers are designed to perform specific tasks. Their operations are limited to the programs built into their microchips. These                        computers are the basis for electronic calculators and can be found in thousands of other electronic products, including digital watches (controlling timing, alarms, and displays), cameras (monitoring shutter speeds and aperture settings), and automobiles (controlling fuel injection, heating, and air conditioning and monitoring hundreds of  electronic sensors).
General-purpose computers, such as personal computers and business computers, are much more versatile because they can accept new sets of instructions. Each new set of instructions, or program,
enables the same computer to perform a different type of operation.  For example, one program lets the  computer act like a word processor, another lets it manage inventories, and yet another transforms it into a video game.
Although some general-purpose computers are as small as pocket radios, the smallest class of fully functional, self-contained computers is  the class called notebook computers. These usually consist of a CPU, data-storage devices called disk drives, a liquid-crystal display (LCD), and a full-size keyboard--all housed in a single unit small enough to fit into a briefcase.  
Today's desktop personal computers, or PCs, are many times more powerful than the huge, million-dollar business computers of the 1960s and 1970s. Most PCs can perform from 16 to 66 million operations per second, and some can even perform more than 100 million. These computers are used not only for household management and personal entertainment, but also for most of the automated tasks required by small businesses, including word processing, generating mailing lists, tracking inventory, and calculating accounting information.
Minicomputers are fast computers that have greater datamanipulating capabilities than personal computers and can be used simultaneously by many people. These machines are primarily used by larger businesses to handle extensive accounting, billing, and inventory records.
Mainframes are large, extremely fast, multi-user computers that often contain complex arrays of processors, each designed to perform a specific function. Because they can handle huge databases, can
simultaneously accommodate scores of users, and can perform complex mathematical operations, they are the mainstay of industry, research, and university computing centers.
The speed and power of supercomputers, the fastest class of computer, are almost beyond human comprehension, and their capabilities are continually being improved. The most sophisticated of
these machines can perform nearly 32 billion calculations per second, can store a billion characters in memory at one time, and can do in one hour what a desktop computer would take 40 years to do.
Supercomputers attain these speeds through the use of several advanced engineering techniques. For example, critical circuitry is supercooled to nearly absolute zero so that electrons can move at the
speed of light, and many processors are linked in such a way that they can all work on a single problem simultaneously. Because these computers can cost millions of dollars, they are used primarily by
government agencies and large research centers.
Computer development is rapidly progressing at both the ... more

levels of electronic

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