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Digital firm- organization where nearly all significant business processes and relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled, and key corporate assets are managed through digital means.
Business processes- the unique ways in which organizations coordinate and organize work activities, informations, and knowledge to produce a product or service
Information system- interrelated components working together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization
Data- streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical envionment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use
Input- the capture or collection of raw data from within the organization or from its external environment for processing in an information system
Processing- the conversion, manipulation, and analysis of raw input into a form that is more meaningful to humans
Ouput-the distribution of processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.
Feedback- output that is returened to the appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct input.
Computer based information systems (CBIS)- information systems that rely on computer hardware and software for processing and disseminating information
Formal system- sstem resting on accepted and fixed definitions of data and procedures, operating with predefined rules
Information systems literacy- broad-based understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as well as technical knowledge about computers
Computer literacy- knowledge about information technology, focusing on understanding how computer-based technologies work.
Business functions- specialized tasks performed in a business organization including manufacturing and production, sales and marketing, finance, accounting and human resources
Standard operating procedures- formal rules for accomplishing tasks that have been developed to cope with expected situations
Knowledge workers- People such as engineers or architects who design products or services and create knowledge for the organization
Data workers- People such as secretaries or bookkeepers who process the organizations paperwork
Production or service workers- People who actually produce the products or services of the organization
Senior managers- People occupying the topmost hierarchy in an organization who are responsible for making long range decisions
Middle managers- people in the middle of the organizational hierarchy who are responsible for carrying out the plans and goals of senior management
Operational managers- people who monitor the day-to-day activities of the organization
Network- linking of two or more computers to share data or resources, such as a printer
Information technology infrastructure- computer hardware, software, data and storage technology, and networks providing a portfolio of shared information technology resoursces for the organization
Management information systems(MIS)- the study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management.
Mass customization- the capacity to offer individually tailored products or services on a large scale
Interoganizational systems- information systems that automate the flow of information across organizational boundaries and link a company to its customers, distributors, or suppliers
Electronic market- a marketplace that is created by computer and communication technologies that link many buyers and sellers
Extranet- Private intranet that is accessible to authorized outsiders
Electronis business- the use of internet and other digital technology for organizational communicatin and coordination and the management of the firm
Electronic commerce- the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transactions using the Internet, networks, and other digital technologies
Information architecture- the particular desgn that information technology takes in a specific organization to achieve selected goals or functions.
Operational level systems- information systems that monitor the elementary activities and transactions of the organizations
Knowledge level systems- information systems that support the monitoring controlling decision making and administrative activities of middle managers
Strategic level systems- information systems that support the long range planning activities of senior management
Transaction processing system (TPS)- computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business they serve the organizations operational level
Knowledge work systems (KWS)- information systems that aid knowledge workers in the creation and integration of new knowledge in the organization
Decision support systems-(DSS)- Info systems at the organizations management level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support nonroutine decision making
Executive support systems-EES- info syst at the organizations strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications
Customer relationship management (CRM)- Business and technology discpline to coordinate all of the business processes ... more
Find essay on Labor And Delivery
Breaking Down the Constitution
Article Five, clause two of the United States Constitution
states, "under the Authority of the United States, [the Constitution]
shall be the supreme law of the land." As a result of the fact that
the current activist government is pursuing inconsistent policies,
many believe the Constitution has become irrelevant because no guiding
principles seem to exist. Thomas Jefferson once said, "The
Constitution belongs to the living and not to the dead." Accordingly,
it is often referred to as a "living" document because of its regular
alteration and reexamination; therefore, the Constitution has not
become irrelevant in defining the goals of American government. This
will be shown by examining how the Constitution ensures and upholds
American ideas of rights, defines governmental structures, allows for
an increase in governmental growth, and permits the Supreme Court to
shape and define public policy through Constitutional
Through years of research on court cases, political scientists
are in agreement that most people favor rights in theory, but their
support diminishes when the time to put the rights into practice
arrives. For example, a strong percentage of Americans concur with
the idea of free speech throughout the United States, but when a court
case such as Texas vs. Johnson (1989) arises, most backing shifts away
from complete freedom of speech. In the case, a Texan named Gregory
Johnson set fire to an American flag during the 1984 Republican
National Convention in Dallas in order to protest nuclear arms
buildup; the decision was awarded to Johnson in the midst of stern
Lockean philosophy concerning the natural rights of man also
serves amajor role in an American's idea of rights. Many citizens
feels that it is the task of the state to preserve such birthrights as
life, liberty, and property. The juristic theory of rights deals with
the hypothesis that a man's natural rights only amounted to the
quantity of power he can exercise over any other man. A more general
and logical definition of a right is a claim upheld by the law, in
which case the Bill of Rights becomes important (Benn 195).
Although the Constitution originally did not contain the Bill
of Rights, the states threatened to delay ratification until the
amendments were made. The main purpose of implementing the first ten
amendments to the United States Constitution, was to safeguard
fundamental individual rights against seizure by the federal
government and prohibit interference with existing rights. The
Revolutionary War with Britain was still quite clear in the American
mind during the writing of the Constitution, so the Bill of Rights had
full support of the public because it protected citizens against
everything which had angered the colonists about the British (Holder
The Constitution is extremely ambiguous concerning individual
rights and personal freedoms of man. It does, however, prohibit the
passage of ex post facto laws, which punish people for an act they
committed before such an act was illegal, disallow bills of attainder,
which punish offenders without a trial, and prevent suspension of the
writ of habeas corpus, which requires a detained man to be notified of
the offense he committed (Gilbert 331). The Constitution also
prohibits religious qualifications for seeking and holding a
governmental office, and it secures the right of a trial by jury of
peers in a criminal case (Gilbert 336).
Articles One, Two, and Three of the United States Constitution
define the three structures of the national government, and include
each branch's composition and function.
Article One deals with the Congress, the legislative structure
of the federal government. It is the Congress, rather than the
President, who is bestowed by the Constitution with the lawmaking
duty. The legislative branch contains two Houses, one being the
Senate, which is based upon equal representation of the states, and
the other being the House of Representatives, which is based upon
state population. The Framers envisioned Congress as the most
important and most powerful branch of government, although today much
of the significant legislation is initiated by the President and the
In order to be a Representative, one must be twenty-five years
of age or older, a United States citizen for at least seven years, and
reside in the state from which he is elected (Holder ... more
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