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Bureacracy in japan
Bureacracy in Japan
Ever since its establishment in 1955, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has maintained its one-party rule, and it continues to hold the highest executive power, being the prime ministership, and the cabinet. The LDP's one party rule has shaped the Japanese political economy by creating very close ties between the political, bureaucratic, and industrial/business structure. This has been done through the auspices of institutions such as Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and the Keirietsu/Ziabatsu (or other such interest groups). The LDP's diversion of government funds to dissatisfied groups (i.e. "pork barrel" politics) and the creation of very close personal and financial linkages between government and industry served as the driving force in creating a unique Japanese political economy where business and politics became essentially indistinguishable. Politicians and the bureaucracy were considered to be the most politically influential forces in Japan. However, there was more emphasis on the politicians, especially among the LDP members.
In the private sector, the LDP provided special benefits in return for consistent political support. For example, there was extensive reemployment of senior bureaucrats in big business and politics after their retirement. These people are called the amakudari ("decent from heaven"). They deepened the communication between the government and the private sector, giving the private sector a way to manipulate the government or vice versa. Some amakudari in the LDP became members of the zoku (tribes), one of the party factions . The zoku were party officials who developed enough knowledge to force the bureaucracy to serve both national and party interests.
The LDP highly depended on the farmers for electoral support, which explains their loud concerns to agricultural policies. But there was also extensive involvement in the agricultural sector by MITI and MAFF. MITI represented the interests of commerce and industry, and MAFF had closer ties with the farmers. Although the two ministries had much to do with the agricultural industry, it was really the LDP's agriculture zoku which influenced them, effecting personnel matters. The agriculture zoku established followers from within these bureaucracies causing them to absorb opinions given by the LDP and convert them into instructions. Due to this "connection" between the LDP, the farmers and the bureaucracies, the following occurs: in order for the farmers to initiate new policies and get the attention of MITI, they go directly through the LDP. Pressure is put on the LDP, who later instructs MAFF bureaucrats. Then the MITI is influenced by MAFF and thus the development of the new policies. In such a policy-making process, there is an obvious social connection and certain interdependence between the farmers, the LDP and the bureaucracies.
The greater part of the LDP's affairs are conducted by factions such as the zoku. These factions play a crucial role in resolution of party personnel matters: the election of the president, the appointment of cabinet ministers, and naming of important party officials. Each time the LDP selects a new president, billions are spent to accumulate sufficient votes to win the office. Since these political activities cost a great deal of money, the factions have established a close relationship with corporate Japan, and "money politics" has become a major characteristic of the parties.
The business world and the banking community especially have supported the LDP than any other party, simply due to the fact that the conservatives constitute the party that has helped provide the most favorable environment for rapid economic expansion. Japanese economic development has been marked by heavy investments in plants, facilities, and equipment on the part of the various levels of government and especially by the private sector. To invest in modern equipment and factories, corporations had to borrow money from banks and other financial institutions. By means of such heavy borrowing, Japanese companies have entered a pattern in which many Japanese firms have been put into perennial debt - the debts owed to the various banks. As long as the company is a leading one, the government would be likely to rescue it, if for any reason it is in danger of bankruptcy, particularly if the government fears serious repercussions for other sectors of the economy. It is ... more
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There were various reasons why the American Colonies were established. The three most important themes of English colonisation of America were religion, economics, and government. The most important reasons for colonisation were to seek refuge, religious freedom, and economic opportunity. To a lesser degree, the colonists sought to establish a stable and progressive government.
Many colonies were founded for religious purposes. While religion was involved with all of the colonies, Massachusetts, New Haven, Maryland, and Pennsylvania were established exclusively for religious purposes.
Massachusetts's inhabitants were Puritans who believed in predestination and the ideal that God is perfect. Many Puritans in England were persecuted for their nihilist beliefs in England because they felt that the Church of England, led by the King, did not enforce a literal enough interpretation of the Bible. Persecution punishment included jail and even execution. To seek refuge, they separated to go to Holland because of its proximity, lower cost, and safer passage. However, their lives in Holland were much different than that of England. The Separatists did not rebel against but rather preferred the English culture. They did not want their children to be raised Dutch. Also, they felt that Holland was too liberal. Although they enjoyed the freedom of religion, they decided to leave for America. Pilgrims, or sojourners, left for America on the Mayflower and landed in Cape Cod in 1626. They had missed their destination, Jamestown. Although the climate was extremely rocky, they did not want to move south because of their Puritan beliefs. They thought that everything was predestined, and that they must have landed on this rocky place for a reason. They moved slightly north to Plymouth Rock in order to survive more comfortably. Also because of their Puritan beliefs, they had good relations with the Native Americans. Their pacifist nature led the Indians to help with their crops. In thanks, the Pilgrims celebrated the first thanksgiving in 1621. A second group of Puritans in England, the Massachusetts Bay Company, came to Massachusetts for more economically motivated purposes due to their non-minimalist beliefs.
New Haven and Connecticut were two other colonies founded exclusively for Religious purposes. Many of the Separatists in Massachusetts felt that the religion was too liberal inside of the colony. They felt that the beliefs were not being enforced enough and that the people were not living through literal interpretations of the Bible. These Separatists further separated themselves from Massachusetts and formed a new colony, New Haven. Connecticut was founded by those separatists in Massachusetts who felt that the religion was too strict.
Yet another colony established for exclusive, religiously motivated purposes was Maryland. Roman Catholics, under George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore, fled religious persecution in England from the Protestants. Due to the immediate wealth from tobacco harvesting, Protestants came over to the new colony seeking some of the wealth. Ironically, the Protestants began to outnumber the Catholics, therefore once again making them a minority although the Catholics had been trying to flee from the Protestants. In immediate response to the Protestant immigration, the Catholics set up the Maryland Toleration Act, which stated that all Christian religions would be tolerated. This was to ensure the survival of the Catholics in Maryland.
Pennsylvania also was founded for the sole purpose of religion, but unlike the other colonies, it began to increase toleration of religious diversity later on in the progression of its settlement. King Charles owed William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, a favor. Penn asked the King for some land in the colonies, in return the King gave Penn a piece of the woods (Sylvania) in the New World.
The Quakers, like the early Puritans, were pacifists and minimalists. They believed that God is perfect and had a strict interpretation of the Bible. Their beliefs included that mankind is evil and that every man is born a sinner. At the start of their settlement, they only accepted Christian beliefs. However, once settled in, they quickly proclaimed that all religions would be tolerated in Pennsylvania in order to populate their colony.
Many colonies were founded upon diverse religions because their primary focus and purpose was to make money or to populate the country. These economically motivated ... more
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