Jordanian Army


Find More Jordanian Army

Looking for essays on jordanian army? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

jordanian army The Western Influence on the Formation of Saudi Arabia from 1902 - 1926


The area that is currently Saudi Arabia was originally part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire during the 16th century, after the capture of Mecca by the Turks in 1517, but local rulers were allowed a great deal of autonomy and ruled their relative territories unhindered. (CountryReports.org 3) Under Turkish supervision, different Sherifs of Mecca governed the territory of Hejaz.  Furthermore, this covered the western part of the peninsula including the Red Sea coast, including the holy places of Mecca and Medina, until the onset of World War I.


Saudi Arabia was one of the Arab states that emerged from the wreckage of the Ottoman Empire after World War I.  Between the years 1919 to 1926, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud defeated a series of rivals to unify about 80 percent of the Arabian Peninsula under his rule in what was called the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Nejd. (Kort 194) The last unsuccessful challenger was the leader of the Hashemite family, Hussein Ibn Ali who was the great-grandfather of Jordans King Hussein. (Kort 194)


Several important factors distinguish Saudi Arabia from its neighbors. Unlike other states in the area, Saudi Arabia has never been under the direct control of a European power. (CountryReports.org 2)  It is during the period just prior to and following World War I that the West imparts the greatest impact on the formation of the current Saudi state.  Tribal loyalties also play an important role in these countries and one of the leading tribal leaders in this period, Abdul Aziz, proved to be quite adept at playing the great powers of Britain and the Turkish Ottoman Empire against one another to suit the needs of his cause.


The founder of the modern state of Saudi Arabia lived much of his early life in exile. In the end, however, he not only recovered the territory of the first Al Saud empire, but also made a state out of it. Abdul Aziz accomplished this by maneuvering among a number of forces. The first was the religious fervor that Wahhabi Islam continued to inspire. His Wahhabi army, the Ikhwan, for instance, represented a powerful tool, but one that was to prove so difficult to control that the he ultimately had to destroy it. (Lacey 219) At the same time, Abdul Aziz had to anticipate how all these actions would be viewed abroad and to handle the great foreign powers, particularly the British.


Abdul Aziz managed to complete the establishment of the Saudi state in three ways, by retaking Najd in 1905, defeating the Rashidi clan at Hail in 1921, and conquering the Hijaz in 1924. (CountryReports.org 1)  To the first point of retaking the Najd, Abdul did what tribal leaders had been doing for centuries. He raised a small force from the surrounding tribes and began to raid areas under Rashidi control, which was north of his birthright of Riyadh. Then in early 1902, he led a small party in a surprise attack on the Rashidi stronghold in Riyadh in order to oust the tribe.


The successful attack gave Abdul Aziz a good start in Najd. But first he had to establish himself in Riyadh as the Al Saud leader and the Wahhabi Imam or political and religious leader. Abdul Aziz obtained the support of the religious establishment in Riyadh, and this relatively quick recognition proved the political force of the Wahhabi authority. Despite his relative youth, Abdul Aziz showed he possessed the qualities the tribes valued in a leader by taking Riyadh. Leadership in these countries did not necessarily follow age, but it respected lineage and, particularly, action.


By 1905 the Ottoman governor in Iraq recognized Abdul Aziz as an Ottoman client in Najd. The Al Saud ruler accepted Ottoman suzerainty because it improved his political position. All the while he courted the British for recognition and protection in order to rid Arabia of Ottoman influence. (www.CountryReports.org 3)  Finally, in 1913, Abdul Aziz's armies drove the Ottomans out of Al Hufuf in eastern Arabia and without British assistance. This helped to strengthen his position in Najd.


In 1914, as the war was escalating and it looked as if the Ottoman Empire ... more

jordanian army

Research on Jordanian Army

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Jordanian Army" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Jordanian Army essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Jordanian Army and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Jordanian Army

Find essay on Jordanian Army

ARAB-ISRAELI WARS

Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the
establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have
been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and
1973) and numerous intermittent battles.  Although Egypt and
Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel
and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands
of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s.

THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49)

The first war began as a civil conflict between Palestinian
Jews and Arabs following the United Nations recommendation of
Nov.  29, 1947, to partition Palestine, then still under
British mandate, into an Arab state and a Jewish state.
Fighting quickly spread as Arab guerrillas attacked Jewish
settlements and communication links to prevent implementation
of the UN plan.

Jewish forces prevented seizure of most settlements, but Arab
guerrillas, supported by the Transjordanian Arab Legion under
the command of British officers, besieged Jerusalem.  By April,
Haganah, the principal Jewish military group, seized the
offensive, scoring victories against the Arab Liberation Army
in northern Palestine, Jaffa, and Jerusalem.  British military
forces withdrew to Haifa;  although officially neutral, some
commanders assisted one side or the other.

After the British had departed and the state of Israel had been
established on May 15, 1948, under the premiership of David
BEN-GURION, the Palestine Arab forces and foreign volunteers
were joined by regular armies of Transjordan (now the kingdom
of JORDAN), IRAQ, LEBANON, and SYRIA, with token support from
SAUDI ARABIA.  Efforts by the UN to halt the fighting were
unsuccessful until June 11, when a 4-week truce was declared.
When the Arab states refused to renew the truce, ten more days
of fighting erupted.  In that time Israel greatly extended the
area under its control and broke the siege of Jerusalem.
Fighting on a smaller scale continued during the second UN
truce beginning in mid-July, and Israel acquired more
territory, especially in Galilee and the Negev.  By January
1949, when the last battles ended, Israel had extended its
frontiers by about 5,000 sq km (1,930 sq mi) beyond the 15,500
sq km (4,983 sq mi) allocated to the Jewish state in the UN
partition resolution.  It had also secured its independence.
During 1949, armistice agreements were signed under UN auspices
between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.  The
armistice frontiers were unofficial boundaries until 1967.

SUEZ-SINAI WAR (1956)

Border conflicts between Israel and the Arabs continued despite
provisions in the 1949 armistice agreements for peace
negotiations.  Hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs who
had left Israeli-held territory during the first war
concentrated in refugee camps along Israel's frontiers and
became a major source of friction when they infiltrated back to
their homes or attacked Israeli border settlements.  A major
tension point was the Egyptian-controlled GAZA STRIP, which was
used by Arab guerrillas for raids into southern Israel.
Egypt's blockade of Israeli shipping in the Suez Canal and Gulf
of Aqaba intensified the hostilities.

These escalating tensions converged with the SUEZ CRISIS caused
by the nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egyptian president
Gamal NASSER.  Great Britain and France strenuously objected to
Nasser's policies, and a joint military campaign was planned
against Egypt with the understanding that Israel would take the
initiative by seizing the Sinai Peninsula.  The war began on
Oct.  29, 1956, after an announcement that the armies of Egypt,
Syria, and Jordan were to be integrated under the Egyptian
commander in chief.  Israel's Operation Kadesh, commanded by
Moshe DAYAN, lasted less than a week;  its forces reached the
eastern bank of the Suez Canal in about 100 hours, seizing the
Gaza Strip and nearly all the Sinai Peninsula.  The Sinai
operations were supplemented by an Anglo-French invasion of
Egypt on November 5, giving the allies control of the northern
sector of the Suez Canal.

The war was halted by a UN General Assembly resolution calling
for an immediate ceasefire and withdrawal of all occupying
forces from Egyptian territory.  The General Assembly also
established a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) to replace
the allied troops on the Egyptian side of the borders in Suez,
Sinai, and Gaza.  By December 22 the last British and French
troops had left Egypt.  Israel, however, delayed withdrawal,
insisting that it receive security guarantees against further
Egyptian attack.  After several additional UN resolutions
calling for withdrawal and after pressure from the United
States, Israel's forces left in March 1957.

SIX-DAY WAR (1967)

Relations between Israel and Egypt remained fairly stable in
the following decade.  The Suez Canal remained closed to
Israeli shipping, the Arab boycott of Israel was maintained,
and periodic border clashes occurred between Israel, Syria, and
Jordan.  However, UNEF prevented direct military encounters
between Egypt and Israel.

By 1967 the Arab confrontation states--Egypt, ... more

jordanian army

FAQ

What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling

@Gusgustt

Browse Essays

  • J: Arab-Israeli Conflict J: Arab-Israeli Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict came about from the notion of Political Zionism. Zionism is the belief that Jews constitute a nation (or a people) and that they deserve the right to return to what they consider to be their ancestral home, land of Israel (or Palestine). Political Zionism, the belief that Jews should establish a state for themselves in Palestine, was a revolutionary idea for the 19th Century. During World War I, Jews supported countries that constituted the Central...
  • O: The Western Influence on the Formation of Saudi Ar O: The Western Influence on the Formation of Saudi Ar The Western Influence on the Formation of Saudi Arabia from 1902 - 1926 The area that is currently Saudi Arabia was originally part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire during the 16th century, after the capture of Mecca by the Turks in 1517, but local rulers were allowed a great deal of autonomy and ruled their relative territories unhindered. (CountryReports.org 3) Under Turkish supervision, different Sherifs of Mecca governed the territory of Hejaz. Furthermore, this covered the western part of the ...
  • R: Arab - Israeli Wars R: Arab - Israeli Wars Arab - Israeli Wars Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s. THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49) The first war began as a...
  • D: PLO - Palestine Liberation Organization D: PLO - Palestine Liberation Organization PLO - Palestine Liberation Organization History Palestinian Liberation Organization 1. Can the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) justifiably claim to be \'the sole, legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.\'? The PLO was set up in 1964 by an Arab League decision in response to growing signs of Palestinian unrest. The Palestinians desired to reclaim the lands occupied by Israel, which they felt belonged to them, as said in the Bible. In 1964 the Arab states created the Palestine...
  • A: Arab-Israeli conflict A: Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict is one of the most prolonged and bloody conflicts in not only modern history, but in the ancient world as well. The roots of the conflict, as well as the arguments on both sides, are as diversified and complicated as the conflict itself. The Israelites started to conquer and settle the land of Canaan, which is present day Israel, in 1250 B.C.. King Solomon ruled the Israelites and the land of Israel from 961-922 B.C.. Following his reign, Israel ...
  • N: ARAB-ISRAELI WARS N: ARAB-ISRAELI WARS ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s. THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49) The first war began as a c...
  • I: MID-EAST Wars I: MID-EAST Wars MID-EAST Wars Early-MidEast Wars Since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and1973) and numerous smaller battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1900s. Thats why Im writing about past issues. The f...
  • A: Terrorism As An International Phenomenon A: Terrorism As An International Phenomenon Word Count: 2907 Terrorism as an International Phenomenon International terrorism, intelligence gathering and covert operations are all phenomenon, which intrigue the minds of many people both young and old. This paper is a historical recount and study on the various elements that comprise an international operation. It is also a vehicle for discussing the effects of intelligence agencies around the world, with particular interest in the CIA, Mossad, and KGB. This paper will show the various res...
  • N: Terrorism As An International Phenomenon N: Terrorism As An International Phenomenon Terrorism As An International Phenomenon Terrorism as an International Phenomenon International terrorism, intelligence gathering and covert operations are all phenomenon, which intrigue the minds of many people both young and old. This paper is a historical recount and study on the various elements that comprise an international operation. It is also a vehicle for discussing the effects of intelligence agencies around the world, with particular interest in the CIA, Mossad, and KGB. This paper w...
  •  : Jfk Life : Jfk Life Jfk Life In November 1960, at the age of 43, John F. Kennedy became the youngest man ever elected president of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt had become president at 42 when President William McKinley was assassinated, but he was not elected at that age. On Nov. 22, 1963, Kennedy was shot to death in Dallas, Tex., the fourth United States president to die by an assassin\'s bullet. Kennedy was the nation\'s first Roman Catholic president. He was inaugurated in January 1961, succeeding Repu...
  • A: Arab-Israeli conflict A: Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict is one of the most prolonged and bloody conflicts in not only modern history, but in the ancient world as well. The roots of the conflict, as well as the arguments on both sides, are as diversified and complicated as the conflict itself. The Israelites started to conquer and settle the land of Canaan, which is present day Israel, in 1250 B.C.. King Solomon ruled the Israelites and the land of Israel from 961-922 B.C.. Following his reign, Israel ...
  • R: The PLO R: The PLO The PLO Functioning as a Palestinian government, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded in 1964 as a political body representing the Palestinians in their efforts to reclaim their country from the Israelis. Originally an umbrella organization of refugee and military groups, it was ultimately joined by professional, labour and student associations and also by some individuals. The purpose of the PLO is to help the Palestinians to recover their usurped homes and to replace Israe...
  • M: Arab-Israeli Conflict M: Arab-Israeli Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict On November 29, 1947, the United Nations voted to divide the Middle Eastern land called Palestine into two independent nations, one Arab and one Jewish. On May 14, 1948, a new nation was born: Israel. The Jews of Israel and the world celebrated with joy and gladness, because for over two thousand years, they had hoped to return to the land of their heritage. (Silverman, 1) However with Jews from all around the world returning to Israel, the Arabs residing in this land were ...
  • Y: ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Y: ARAB-ISRAELI WARS ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s. THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49) The first war began as a c...
  • Conflict in the middle east Conflict in the middle east Conflict in the middle east Since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947- 49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, especially with Palestinian Arabs, has continued because of the lack of co-operation by The first war began as a civil confl...
  • Five imporant events of the 19 Five imporant events of the 19 Five imporant events of the 19 Five Important Events of the 1960s Assassinations During the 1960s the world was hit with four different assassinations of some of the leaders in the world who were out to change the way things were. Although some disagreed to the changes that they were trying to do and even threatened them, they still continued to pursue their idea of change. Ngo Dinh Diem became the first president of South Vietnam in 1956 he was a catholic who opposed Communism and sought for an...
  • Conflict In The Middle East Conflict In The Middle East Conflict In The Middle East Conflict In the Middle East Since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947- 49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, especially with Palestinian Arabs, has continued because of the lack of co-operation by the Arab...
  • Middle east Middle east middle east Arab-Israeli Conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict came about from the notion of Political Zionism. Zionism is the belief that Jews constitute a nation (or a people) and that they deserve the right to return to what they consider to be their ancestral home, land of Israel (or Palestine). Political Zionism, the belief that Jews should establish a state for themselves in Palestine, was a revolutionary idea for the 19th Century. During World War I, Jews supported countries that constituted...
  • Arab / Israeli Conflicts From 1960 - 1970 Arab / Israeli Conflicts From 1960 - 1970 Arab / Israeli Conflicts From 1960 - 1970 Israel\'s incredible victories, in just 6 days, Israeli armies conquered the West Bank, including the Old City of Jerusalem, the Gaza strip and the Syrian Golan Heights, defeating simultaneously the armies of Egypt, Jordan and Syria. But more than that, Israel created a new reality in the Middle East - and sowed the seeds for deep dissent within its own society. Today over 400,000 Israelis live on land conquered in the 1967 war. Their fate and the fate o...
  • Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict is one of the most prolonged and bloody conflicts in not only modern history, but in the ancient world as well. The roots of the conflict, as well as the arguments on both sides, are as diversified and complicated as the conflict itself. The Israelites started to conquer and settle the land of Canaan, which is present day Israel, in 1250 B.C.. King Solomon ruled the Israelites and the land of Israel from 961-922 B.C.. Following his reign, Isr...
  • ARAB-ISRAELI WARS ARAB-ISRAELI WARS ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s. THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49) The first war began as a c...
  • Arab-Israelia Wars Arab-Israelia Wars Arab-Israelia Wars Arab-Israeli Wars Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in 1948, there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (1947-49, 1956, 1967, and 1973) and numerous intermittent battles. Although Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, hostility between Israel and the rest of its Arab neighbors, complicated by the demands of Palestinian Arabs, continued into the 1980s. THE FIRST PALESTINE WAR (1947-49) The fir...
  • Arab-Israeli Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict came about from the notion of Political Zionism. Zionism is the belief that Jews constitute a nation (or a people) and that they deserve the right to return to what they consider to be their ancestral home, land of Israel (or Palestine). Political Zionism, the belief that Jews should establish a state for themselves in Palestine, was a revolutionary idea for the 19th Century. During World War I, Jews supported countries that c...
  • Welafre Welafre Welafre In November 1960, at the age of 43, John F. Kennedy became the youngest man ever elected president of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt had become president at 42 when President William McKinley was assassinated, but he was not elected at that age. On Nov. 22, 1963, Kennedy was shot to death in Dallas, Tex., the fourth United States president to die by an assassin\'s bullet. Kennedy was the nation\'s first Roman Catholic president. He was inaugurated in January 1961, succeeding Repub...
  • Arab Isreali Conflict Arab Isreali Conflict Arab Isreali Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict came about from the notion of Political Zionism. Zionism is the belief that Jews constitute a nation (or a people) and that they deserve the right to return to what they consider to be their ancestral home, land of Israel (or Palestine). Political Zionism, the belief that Jews should establish a state for themselves in Palestine, was a revolutionary idea for the 19th Century. During World War I, Jews supported countries that c...