John T Scopes


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john t scopes American History                                         Amanda Bahrke
Research paper (Scopes Monkey Trial)                                     3-
1-04

     The 1920's was a time of prosperity, rebellion, drinking, and dancing
for many people. There were traditionalists who did not agree with this
type of society. One major example of traditionalists versus modernists in
the 1920's was the Scopes Monkey Trial. In this trial, a jury had to decide
the fate of John Scopes, who taught evolution to high school students. This
trial was not just about the teaching of evolution. It represented changing
views of society, and what would now be socially accepted.
     Long before the first day of the trial, there were many people
talking about it. This trial would change history books. John Scopes, a
substitute high school science teacher, and football coach was charged with
illegally teaching the theory of evolution. Clarence Darrow, a brilliant
lawyer specializing in defending underdogs volunteered to defend Scopes.
William Jennings Bryan, an extremely well known politician was against
Darrow and Scopes for this trial. The first day of trial was July 10, 1925,
in Dayton, Tennessee. People, banners, lemonade stands, and chimpanzees
crowded Main Street. There were nearly a thousand people in the courtroom
the first day although there were only three hundred seats. There were also
many people listening on the radio. It became the first ever American trial
to be broadcast live on national radio.
     Opening statements began with very strong viewpoints depicting the
trial between good versus evil or truth versus ignorance. Bryan started by
saying "If evolution wins, Christianity goes." Darrow responded by saying
the anti-evolution law made the Bible "The yardstick to measure every man's
intellect, to measure every man's intelligence, to measure every man's
learning." Both Darrow's and Bryan's strong statements were sure to get
more publicity on the trial. As the days went on more and more people
watched the trial unravel. By the sixth day there were about 5,000
spectators. The strong viewpoints continued well into the trial, and one of
Darrow's witnesses even got a standing ovation from the crowd after an
amazing speech.
     A couple more days passed and the judge had to move the trial to the
lawn outside the courthouse because of the many spectators. On one very
important day of the trial Darrow was allowed to interrogate Bryan. Knowing
that Bryan had studied the Bible for over fifty years, he began asking him
all sorts of questions. In response to Darrow's relentless questions as to
whether the six days of creation were twenty-four hour days, Bryan said,
"My impression is that they were periods." Then it was Bryan's turn to
interrogate Darrow, and both of the men grew more irritable as the
questioning continued. There was an outburst by Bryan saying, "I want the
world to know that this man, who does not believe in God, is trying to use
a court in Tennessee." He was then interrupted by Darrow's objection. Bryan
then continued by saying "your fool ideas that no intelligent Christian on
earth believes." After this statement the judge ordered the court
adjourned. The press reported the day as a defeat for Bryan.
     By then the trial was nearly over. Darrow asked the jury for a guilty
verdict so the case could possibly be appealed to the Tennessee Supreme
Court and get a second change. Because of Tennessee law, Bryan was then
unable to deliver his closing speech that he had been working on for weeks.
The jury followed through with Darrow's request, and fined Scopes one
hundred dollars, but did not find Scopes guilty. The judge declared the
case a mistrial. No one had really won or lost the case, and it neither
killed nor promoted the anti-evolution crusade.
     After eating an enormous supper six days after the trial, Bryan took
a nap and died in his sleep. Reporters suggested that Bryan died of a
broken heart. Then when Darrow heard the news, he replied by saying "Broken
heart nothing, he died of a busted belly. His death is a great loss to the
American people."
     The Scopes Monkey Trial was very publicized, although it never really
had an outcome. Bryan and Darrow were very testy throughout the entire
trial, and the American people loved to hear about it. A lot of people were
relieved to find out that there was no final ruling. After the case,
everyone could keep their own beliefs without being prosecuted. ... more

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Only Yesterday

Only Yesterday

      Frederick Lewis Allen's book Only Yesterday is an informal look at life in the 1920's. The book begins with a prelude that details the lives of a young married couple. The book then proceeds to tell the events that occurred during the 1920's beginning with the signing of the armistice and ending with the stock market crash of 1929.
      Woodrow Wilson was the president at the end of WWI. He had the great honor of informing the American public that the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918. When the news reached the people they literally poured into the streets in celebration.  Four days before a false report was released that the armistice had been signed and America erupted into mass hysteria throwing parties and parades. It was debatable if the happy chaos would be repeated when the news of the actual signing was released. But that question was soon answered because with the news came a celebration that topped the one previously held.  People ran into the streets shouting, "the Kaiser is dead". Joyously America celebrated her triumphant defeat over the dreaded Kaiser. Soon the excitement of the signing died down and people began to face the realities that followed a post war nation. Troops were still marching into Germany and there was still a casualty list that added new names each day.
      America faced other problems. Workers began to form Unions in order to gain more wages and benefits. One of the most notable strikes was the one by the Boston Police Department. The Police force went on strike and Boston went virtually unprotected. The criminals saw their opportunity and began to riot and loot. The National Guard had to be called in to regain order. It took several weeks for any semblance of order to return. Consequently the police who were striking were fired and eventually replaced. Another problem for America was a rumor that caused widespread panic in the minds of the American people. Supposedly the Bolshevics had plans to infiltrate the U.S. government and other institutions. A handful of radicals added to this fear by bombing certain buildings and high-ranking officials.  This and other aggressive action by the radicals caused the public to act out in fear. Many people were deported for being accused of affiliating with the Communist party. Illegal searches and seizures of property were used to convict and deport undesirable aliens. One man killed an alien for saying "To Hell with the U.S." and he was acquitted of the crime after two minutes of deliberation. This and other acts kept occurring until the American public realized that the Bolshevic threat was not that serious.
      America soon turned its attention to topics of leisure as opposed to those of war. The invention of the radio became the main topic of discussion. People were now able to hear music as well as preaching and sporting events via the airwaves. Baseball grew in popularity as Babe Ruth broke the home run record. Thousands of people flocked to see college football games. Also the first beauty pageants were being held. Men had the opportunity to view the first installment of the swimsuit segment of the pageants. Although the swimsuits of the day were much more modest than those of today they still turned a lot of male heads.
      With the advancement of technology came a revolution of morals. Prior to the 1920's there were distinctive class and family roles firmly established. The father was the head of the household and the mother and children followed his philosophies. Women were not allowed to vote or hold high-ranking jobs. Instead they had to stay at home and cook, sew and do other chores that were required to efficiently run a household. Then came inventions like the vacuum cleaner and the electric iron as well as a number of other appliances and inventions that made housework easier. With hard housework a thing of the past women had more time to concentrate on other things. They got the right to vote and began to go to college. Women began to invade the work force and think for themselves. The boundaries between young men and women were soon disappeared ... more

john t scopes

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  • O: American History Amanda Bahrke O: American History Amanda Bahrke American History Amanda Bahrke Research paper (Scopes Monkey Trial) 3- 1-04 The 1920's was a time of prosperity, rebellion, drinking, and dancing for many people. There were traditionalists who did not agree with this type of society. One major example of traditionalists versus modernists in the 1920's was the Scopes Monkey Trial. In this trial, a jury had to decide the fate of John Scopes, who taught evolution to high school students. This trial was not just about the teaching of evolution. It ...
  • H: Only Yesterday H: Only Yesterday Only Yesterday Only Yesterday Frederick Lewis Allen's book Only Yesterday is an informal look at life in the 1920's. The book begins with a prelude that details the lives of a young married couple. The book then proceeds to tell the events that occurred during the 1920's beginning with the signing of the armistice and ending with the stock market crash of 1929. Woodrow Wilson was the president at the end of WWI. He had the great honor of informing the American public that the armistice was signe...
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  • S: Only Yesterday S: Only Yesterday Only Yesterday Only Yesterday Frederick Lewis Allen\'s book Only Yesterday is an informal look at life in the 1920\'s. The book begins with a prelude that details the lives of a young married couple. The book then proceeds to tell the events that occurred during the 1920\'s beginning with the signing of the armistice and ending with the stock market crash of 1929. Woodrow Wilson was the president at the end of WWI. He had the great honor of informing the American public that the armistice was si...
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  • P: The 20s was a decade of prosperity and entertainm P: The 20s was a decade of prosperity and entertainm The 20\'s was a decade of prosperity and entertainment as well as conflicts. Historians emphasize how Americans were living a life of wealth, but forget to mention the problems of society. Cultural, economic, racial, social, religious and political conflicts that plagued America remain unnoticeable and silent in its history. Amongst the life of prosperity and entertainment of the 1920\'s, the Americans suffered a life of unending conflicts. Prosperity of the 1920\'s affected many Americans impro...
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  • Inherit The Wind Inherit The Wind Inherit The Wind Inherit the Wind The play Inherit the Wind was written by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee to inform its readers about the injustice of a law that limited the freedom of an ordinary citizen. This play is based upon the upon actual events that happened to an individual, John Scopes, in Dayton, Tennessee during the 1920s. This famous Monkey Trial not only allowed people to begin to accept new theories about the origin of man, but also showed that they did not have to limit the...
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  • john T john T john T john T. Scopes: In March 1925, Tennessee passed a law that made teaching evolution a crime. The state legislature passed the law forbidding public schools to teach the theory taught by Darwin, that humans evolved from lower forms of life through evolution, rather than from a single omnipotent creator as suggested in the biblical book of Genesis. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- [Category]: English [Paper Title]: john T. Scopes [Text]: In March 19...
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