Jack Metcalf


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jack metcalf ISO 9000

In order to stay competitive, businesses have to be the best at what they
do.  Companys must be efficient and presise in all aspects of the job. (Metcalfe
1).   ISO 9000 is made up of managements responsibility, the producers
involved in the Quality Management System, the contract review, the design
control, document and data control, purchasing, process control, inspection and
testing, control of non-conforming product, corrective action, handling, storage,
packaging and delivery, internal quality audits, training, servicing and statistical
techniques (Prasanna 1).  Quality control and quality assurance is very
important there are certain requirements that take time and money to be met but
in the end there are benefits.  Types of specifications are very significant and the
documentation of those is even more.  Manufacturers and purchasers have
major responsibility in the process of being successful.  The quality of a product
is so important, especially to the customer.    A companys quality management
system must become the documented proof of a firms commitment to quality
management.  A plan put together with quality procedures and work instructions
is provided to help companies design their own quality management system.
After completing the quality procedures, companies are audited and then
determined if they should be certified for ISO 9000 or not (Parsanna 2).
ISO:  International Organization of Standards
Founded in 1947 in Geneva Switzerland, ISO developed international
standards and helped exchange goods and services worldwide.  It is made up of
over 90 countries including the US, which is called the American National
Standards Institute.  The name ISO came from the Greek word, isos, meaning
equal (Henkoff 2).  ISO was created by business men (Henkoff 2).  These
business men knew what businesses needed to become more competitive and
how they could get higher customer satisfaction, so ISO was developed.  ISO is
not government regulated, but is ran by organizations like the US Registrar
Accreditation Board.  Such organizations authorize registrars which issue ISO
certificates (Barrier 2).  In Europe some organizations are government regulated.
The American National Standards Institute runs the ISO in the US and
authorizes the US Registrar Accreditation Board (Barrier 2).  ISOs job is to set
standards for companies all over the world so that their products come out
efficiently and to the best quality.  This helps the customers who receive the
exports know exactly what they are getting and are satisfied with the product.
Setting these standards is done by ISO members at assembly meetings.
Proposals are developed by the ISO Council, which is like the board of directors
in a business.  These meetings are held three times a year and the membership
is rotated to allow more representatives in (iso online).  Standards are
developed by technical committees.  30,000 experts participate to give
comments, feedback and to vote in meetings which are held15 times a day
electronically.   The experts are chosen by an ISO member of that country (iso
The ISO 9000 series was published in 1987 (iso online).  It is a
standardization system that was developed by ISO.  It is obtained by 130
countries, but its main office is in Geneva, Switzerland where the system is
coordinated and the finished standards are published (iso online).  These ISO
standard are rules and guidelines that ensure the product that a manufacturing
business produces is safe, reliable and efficient (iso online).  These standards
makes sure that businesses are living up to their promises.  An ISO 9000
certificate is given to a business when it maintains the quality management
requirements determined by ISO (Henkoff 1).  ISO 9000 helps a business to get
certified by telling it what requirements it should meet and how it will meet them.
It provides a framework for a company.  It sets standards worldwide and help
export goods to other countries.  However, the company must have good strong
leaders for it to thrive.  The success of ISO 9000 on a business largely depends
on the businesss organization.  Planning, training, setting and achieving goals
are all key to improvement or success of a business (Henkoff 5).  ISO 9000
makes sure a company is doing what it says it is doing and helps them do it.
However, that doesnt mean it is running the company and telling it what to do
(USAToday 1).  The business is still an independent business it is just getting
advice on how to manufacture things and earning a certificate that is appealing
to customers.  However, that also doesnt mean that ISO 9000 promises the
quality of a companys product will be great; Richard Buerow, director of
corporate quality at Motorola states:  With ISO 900 you can ... more

jack metcalf

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How Ethernet Works

What Is Ethernet and How Is It Used?
ITSK2511
Cecil Jackson
Invention of Ethernet
A gentlemen by the name of Bob Metcalfe realized that he could improve on a system called the Aloha System which arbitrated access to a shared communications channel. He developed a new system that included a mechanism that detects when a collision occurs (collision detect). The system also includes listen before talk, in which stations listen for activity (carrier sense) before transmitting, and supports access to a shared channel by multiple stations (multiple access). Put all these components together, and you can see why the Ethernet channel access protocol is called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD). Metcalfe also developed a much more sophisticated backoff algorithm, which, in combination with the CSMA/CD protocol, allows the Ethernet system to function all the way up to 100 percent load.
In late 1972, Metcalfe and his Xerox PARC colleagues developed the first experimental Ethernet system to interconnect the Xerox Alto. The Alto was a personal workstation with a graphical user interface, and experimental Ethernet was used to link Altos to one another, and to servers and laser printers. The signal clock for the experimental Ethernet interfaces was derived from the Alto's system clock, which resulted in a data transmission rate on the experimental Ethernet of 2.94 Mbps.
Metcalfe's first experimental net was called the Alto Aloha Network. In 1973 Metcalfe changed the name to Ethernet, to make it clear that the system could support any computer, and not just Altos, and to point out that his new network mechanisms had evolved well beyond the Aloha system. He chose to base the name on the word ether as a way of describing an essential feature of the system: the physical medium (cable) carries bits to all stations, much the same way that the old luminiferous ether was once thought to propagate electromagnetic waves through space. Physicists Michelson and Morley disproved the existence of the ether in 1887, but Metcalfe decided that it was a good name for his new network system that carried signals to all computers. Thus, Ethernet was born.
The Ethernet System
This is a brief tutorial on the Ethernet system. We'll begin with the origins of Ethernet and the Ethernet standards, and then describe the essential features of Ethernet operation.
Ethernet is a local area network (LAN technology that transmits information between computers at speeds of 10 and 100 million bits per second (Mbps). Currently the most widely used version of Ethernet technology is the 10-Mbps twisted-pair variety.
The 10-Mbps Ethernet media varieties include the original thick coaxial system, as well as thin coaxial, twisted-pair, and fiber optic systems. The most recent Ethernet standard defines the new 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet system which operates over twisted-pair and fiber optic media.
Ethernet is a Vendor-Neutral Network Technology
There are several LAN technologies in use today, but Ethernet is by far the most popular. Industry estimates indicate that as of 1994 over 40 million Ethernet nodes had been installed worldwide. The widespread popularity of Ethernet ensures that there is a large market for Ethernet equipment, which also helps keep the technology competitively priced.
From the time of the first Ethernet standard, the specifications and the rights to build Ethernet technology have been made easily available to anyone. This openness, combined with the ease of use and robustness of the Ethernet system, resulted in a large Ethernet market and is another reason Ethernet is so widely implemented in the computer industry.
The vast majority of computer vendors today equip their products with 10-Mbps Ethernet attachments, making it possible to link all manner of computers with an Ethernet LAN. As the 100-Mbps standard becomes more widely adopted, computers are being equipped with an Ethernet interface that operates at both 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps. The ability to link a wide range of computers using a vendor-neutral network technology is an essential feature for today's LAN managers. Most LANs must support a wide variety of computers purchased from different vendors, which requires a high degree of network interoperability of the sort that Ethernet provides.
Development of Ethernet Standards
Ethernet was invented at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in the 1970s by Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe. It was designed to ... more

jack metcalf

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