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iran iraq war Nuclear Weapons Future

For almost a half a century, the United States and the U.S.S.R. fought a nuclear arms war, the Cold War.  The Cold War officially ended August 19, 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed.  Ironically, the war ended without a battle or a shot fired.  In fact, nuclear weapons have only been used once.  In the Second World War, the United States dropped two nuclear bombs, one on Hiroshima, the other on Nagasaki.  So, what is the future of the Nuclear Weapons Policy, housed in the United States?  For now, the future seems to lie in reduction and deterrence.
In 1991, the United States and Russia signed the first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I).  According to the treaty, the United States and Russia reduce the number of strategic nuclear warheads deployed by the two countries from 13,000 and 11,000, respectively, to around 8,000 each.  The Second treaty (START II), signed in 1993 and ratified in 1996 by the United States says that each nation would further condense their number of deployed warheads to between 3,000 and 4,500, which brings the total to approximately 10,000 nuclear weapons for each side, by the projected 2003 date.  START III, which would reduce the level of warheads to 2,000-2,500, cannot be discussed until START II Russia ratifies START II.  In addition, nuclear testing ended for both sides and the production of weapon-grade fissile material has stopped.  The nuclear treaties leave enough nuclear capability, in both the United States and Russia, to damage an attacking nation.  In fact, without Russia and the United States nuclear arsenal, there are a little over a thousand weapons divided among the rest of the world, as reported by the Center for Defense Information, as long as all the countries in the world approve Test Ban Treaty.  In addition, defense experts believe it would require only a little over a thousand nuclear missiles to fen off an attack.  Therefore, neither country needs to fear that they will not have the strength to retaliate.  Actually, the United States and its NATO allies retain their Cold War weapons of last resort doctrine that allows the first use of nuclear weapons if deemed necessary to cope with non-nuclear attacks, and Russia has announced that she will abandon the USSRs no-first-use pledge for a position similar to NATOs.  The US and Russia have 5,000 to 6,000 nuclear missiles ready to launch on 15 minutes notice, says Joe Cirincione of the Henry L. Stimson Center.  That hasnt change since the beginning of the Cold War. (Landy, p.2)
Reduction also saves the country money, keeping financial advisors for the countries welfare, pushing for arms reduction.  From 1940 to 1996, the Brooking Institution estimates that the U.S. government spent roughly five and a half trillion dollars in preparation for a nuclear war, in todays terms (3.5 actual).  That would be the combination of all the Fortune 500 companies revenue.  Then in 1995, they consumed another twenty-seven billion dollars to prevent a nuclear war.  In fact, each of the B-2 bomber lifecycle cost falls above two and a half billion dollars, accounting for about fifty-five percent of the total spending on nuclear capabilities.
During the cold War Era, nuclear power became the strategic deterrence against both a nuclear attack and a major conventional war, because a more effective plan had not happened and the adversarial relationship between the U.S. and Soviet Union made it irresponsible to rely on good intentions to prevent a nuclear assault.
The character of nuclear weapons and the diverse means for delivering meant that attempts to defend the United States or its allies against nuclear attacks on the population could be over come with much less effort than would have to be invested in the defenses[However] deterrence is likely to succeed only if there are credible plans for what to do if it fails, but constructing such a plan is exceedingly difficult, and attempts to make the threat of nuclear retaliation credible can be seen as aggressive advantage seeking by the other sideadditional countries to assert the same need and right, leading to further nuclear proliferation. (Academy of Science, p.3)
Proof of the power of the fear of nuclear retribution as a prevention comes from comments of senior ... more

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Alexander The Great

Introduction
Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth until 341 B.C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C. In 336 B.C. Philip II, his father, was assassinated, thus making Alexander king.
Alexander became a military leader in 335, and remained one until his death in 323 B.C. He reigned from 336 B.C. until 323 B.C., when he died. His military campaign in Persia lasted from 334 to 329, and in 328 he began his campaign in India and Bactria, which lasted until 326. Alexander was only 20 years old when his father died in early 336 B.C. and he took over, ruling for 12 years and eight months.
Alexander was fair skinned and fair haired. He was not very tall, but had outstanding speed and stamina. He was a dedicated soldier, but didnt care for sports. The only sport he really liked was hunting.
Alexander was the eldest son of Philip II and Olympias. Like Alexander, Philip II was a great general. Olympias and Philip, when Philip was not away on a campaign, constantly fought. His father was away often, and so much of his childhood influences came from his mother, although his father taught him many useful things about war. Because of his mothers heritage, Alexander could truthfully claim relation to two Trojan War heroes, Achilles and, indirectly, Hector. Philip II taught him he was descended from Hercules, which was not true. The historian Callisthenes started an untrue rumor that Alexander was the son of Zeus.
Alexander had seven wives and a male lover. In 327 B.C. he married Roxanne, his main wife, so to speak. Roxanne was a Persian, and by the time he married her, Alexander had total control of Persia and was doing his campaigns in India and Bactria. Roxanne later became pregnant with a child, but when Alexander died it had not yet been born.
*center*Alexanders Childhood
When Alexander was either 13 or 14(different sources gave different ages), Alexander became the pupil of the great philosopher Aristotle. Aristotle taught Alexander grammar, literature, especially Homer, politics, the natural sciences, and rhetoric(the art of using words well and effectively). Aristotle inspired Alexander with a love for literature. He came to know and like the Greek styles of living. Greeces ideals of civilization impressed him, and took part in sports and daily exercises to develop a strong body.
Alexander had another teacher, Leonidas, whom was hired by Philip II to train and discipline Alexanders body. Leonidas sent Alexander on frequent all night marches and rationed his food. Alexanders schooling with his two teachers continued until he was 16 years old.
When Alexander was 16, his father went away to a military campaign. He left Alexander temporarily in charge of his kingdom. While Philip II was away, the people of Thrace started a rebellion. Alexander found out about this rebellion, and crushed it. This rather impressed Philip II, and he let Alexander settle his first town, Alexandropolis. This city, as is probably quite self-evident, was named for Alexander. In Greek, polis means city, so this means Alexander city. At this age, Alexander also had an interest in medicine. He even prescribed medicine to some of his friends.
The Story of Bucephales
When Alexander was either 11 or 12 or 14(there are differing accounts), he went with his father and his fathers company while they went to buy a horse. After a while, Philip saw a horse that he wanted. He soon saw that it was very mean and wild, so he decided against buying it.
When Alexander learned of this decision, he said to his father,What a horse they are losing, and all because they do not know how to handle it, or dare not try.
To this Philip II responded,Are you finding fault with your elders because you think you know more than they do, or can manage a horse better?
At least I can manage this one better,Alexander replied.
Alexander then decided to show the company he could calm this ... more

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