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analysis Thomas Hobbes?s claim ?a state of nature is, or would be, a state of war of everyone against everyone.?
Thomas Hobbes argues that a state of nature will eventually become a state of war of everyone against everyone. According the Hobbes, the main reason behind this change will be the harsh competition over scarce resources caused by the nature of man. Through out this essay Hobbes's reasons will be explained in greater detail.
In order to truly understand the logic behind Hobbes's claim, we must first understand his point of view of human nature. The key element in Hobbes's view on human nature was the importance of desires. Unlike many other philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, Hobbes had a different approach to desires. He believed desires were real motive behind human behaviors. (Leviathan, p119) What motivated human actions were not virtues such as wisdom as Aristotle and Plato would claim, nor was it a sense of duty as Cicero would say. It was rather simple desire. Hobbes did not see desire as a harmful feeling, which must be avoided. He rather thought of it as a positive part of human nature, which could drive a person to achieve more and more.
Hobbes had a definition of happiness closely connected to desires. Hobbes defined happiness as a "continual successe in obtaining those things which a man from time to time desireth" He used the phrase "felicity" for this definition of happiness. (Leviathan, p.129) Important point here is, there is no limit to this attaining of goods and happiness is a continued process of desire fulfillment, which lasts from birth to death.
It would not be wrong if we claim all reasonable people would like to live a life of happiness or in other words, a life of felicity. Having accepted Hobbes's definition of felicity, it can be further said that all people would want a life where all their desires are fulfilled.
Hobbes argued that despite minor differences, all people were close to being the same in both ability and intelligence. (Leviathan, p.183) Hobbes further stated, because people are close to being the same they also have similar desires. This is the point where the problems begin. All people have similar desires for certain goods as well as the same hope of attaining them but unfortunately most of these desired goods are limited in numbers. Because there aren't enough resources for everyone to fulfill their desires, people must compete with others to acquire the goods they desire. Because of competition people will see each other as rivals trying to avoid each other as much as possible. Eventually diffidence will spread among men. (Leviathan, p.184) From diffidence a state of anticipation fearing other side will make an attack on them. Hatred and distrust will slowly grow eventually resulting in wars to take place among men. However, we must also understand that these wars are not necessarily wars where actual fighting takes place; it can also be similar to "Cold War" between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.
But what are the reasons why people can have competition and not have diffidence or war among them? The answer to this question is hidden in Hobbes's understanding of "good", "evil" and "rationality". Hobbes believed that there are no certain natural definitions of good and evil. The meaning of these terms could change from a person to person. (Leviathan, p.120) Hobbes believed that all the actions that help us fulfill our desires could be defined as "good" when examined from our point of view. For a person with such moral values, to kill the competition might seem like a reasonable act if it helps him attain the desired goods and obviously such as acts as murder can easily lead up to a war. Another important view of Hobbes is the definition of rationality. According to Hobbes, rationality is no more than one's own self preservation. So, we can further claim a fully rational human being will take no chances against his self preservation. In a state of nature where all men have such interest based values and where all people are willing to do anything to fulfill their desires everyone else might seem like a potential threat to one's own self preservation. ... more
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Affirmative Action began in 1965 when President Johnson signed the Executive Order 11246 in to law. The Executive Order prevents federal contractors from discriminating against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The phrase "affirmative action" was first coined, when federal contractors were required to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants were not discriminated against in anyway. When affirmative action was created, it only included minorities. In 1967, Johnson decided to expand the program to include women because women were discriminated against much like minorities. In the 60's, 70's and 80's, affirmative action was a method used to stop discrimination, however in today's world it has become reverse discrimination in many cases. Everyone has the opportunity to contribute to society. The color of one's skin does not determine how capable he or she is at achieving greatness. This paper will analyze Affirmative Action and determine its appropriateness in today's society.
As stated above, affirmative action promotes reverse discrimination. Basically reverse discrimination is the condition under which there is preferential treatment of one group (minorities and women) over another group, rather than equal opportunity. Giving the job positions to less qualified candidates is favoritism; this harms those who should be obtaining the job position. A dedicated person who worked hard his or her whole life could lose a position to a minority that slipped into the position undeservingly. The whole purpose of affirmative action was to eliminate favoritism; instead it shifts favoritism to the other side. Favoritism of this sort does nothing but imply that minorities need special treatment to succeed in life. Highly merited minorities (past professors) have told me personally that minorities do not need special treatment; they need equal treatment. They (past professors) told me that affirmative action implies that all minorities are inferior to whites and that minorities need to be treated with special care just to have a chance to become successful. The affirmative action program also undermines their (past professors) achievements of minorities by implying that their positions were handed to them rather than being earned. It seems that they also disagree with affirmative action in today's world.
Affirmative action in collegiate admissions has proven to be one of the most controversial issues of the era. In this area both minorities and non-minorities are discriminated against, when affirmative action was in use the admissions board was divided into two groups one for minorities and another for non-minorities, standards for both groups were different. Once again affirmative action is showing favoritism. A recent example of affirmative action in collegiate admissions includes Gratz and Hamacher vs. University of Michigan. Gratz and Hamacher alleged that unlawful preference to minorities in University of Michigan undergraduate admissions. This also reminds me of when I was a senior in high school, several black colleges wanted me to come to there school to play football on a scholarship. What they did not tell me was that I would receive a minority scholarship not a football scholarship. Basically they found a loophole; they could recruit white players and give them minority scholarships and still have the same number of football scholarships to give out. They were getting a two for one deal by improving their number of minority (white students) students and getting football players at the same time.
Affirmative action has a huge negative impact on our economy; it is costly and could destroy the legitimacy of minorities. In the business world, the main concern of an employer should be to hire the most qualified person that will increase productivity. The concern should not be to hire a racially diverse workforce. How can the most qualified person for the job be hired if the hiring is done on race rather than merit? It makes no sense. Hiring on something rather than merit may result in economic hardship and a less qualified staff. If minorities have a qualified resume and are available, they will meet the criteria of the employer and will be hired on merit and not on diversifying the company. Giving unqualified minorities employment simply treats the symptoms.
Affirmative action also promotes racial preference. Racial preferences are founded on the proposition that ... more
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