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in a small town Facts that lead to poverty: th

Poverty occurs in most parts of the world.  Nevertheless, the more serious and problematical poverty takes part in the third world and the southern parts of the globe.  First of all, we have to clearly define the word “poverty”.  In a broad sense, it means that people within this “poverty” region are poor or have a lower average income per capita than other regions.  To a deeper approach, we refer “poverty” as people have low educational backgrounds, lack of food supplies, or people with lower standard of livings, etc.  According to the Webster’s New World Dictionary, the word “poverty” can be defined as: 1) the condition or quality of being poor  2) deficiency; inadequacy  3) scarcity  (Webster’s p.461).  Generally in this essay, we will examine the facts that lead to the poverty of these third world and southern countries.  
The first and the most serious problem that causes by poverty are hunger, or preciously, malnutrition.  We can find these kinds of problems almost all over Africa and some other underdeveloped countries.  These were witnessed by thousands of people through TV, radio, newspaper, journals, etc.  “In the early 1980s, the mass media dramatically brought us the picture of hunger from Africa – starving children, skin and bone, with their bloated bellies, too weak to even stand up.” (Warnock p.1)  At the same time, people living in more developed countries or wealthy states are enjoying different kinds of delicious meals and dumping whatever they don’t like.  Why would this happen?  Can we refer this to the government or economical policies that rise the problems?  To further explore the problem of hunger in Africa, we can easily relate this to poverty.  In fact, there may be some other problems that cause the hunger.  For example, local drought in the African Sahel that damages the cropping; which in turn shorten the local food supplies.  The other factor is the rapid population growth in Africa.  Increasing capita means an increase demand of food.  People in Africa are rarely taught the knowledge of birth-control.  “If you have money you eat well, no matter how fast the population around you is growing and no matter how short the supplies of energy or land or fertilizer.” (Kent p.77)  According to Kent’s view, we shall see that money can buy off the problem of hunger easily.  But why Africa is still facing a lot of famine problems within its region?  This can be explained by the “chain-effect” of poverty and hunger.  If people are poor, they won’t have enough to produce in order to exchange for money.  Without money, they will suffer from hunger and famine and not be able to produce efficiently due to their lack of energy.  Now that we can see the problem is magnetized.  
The other issues that rise poverty in Africa is the irrational economical policies and huge amount of financial debts.  “According to U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, the debt-service obligations within African countries dedicating an estimated 34 percent of the income generated by the export of goods and services to interest payments.”  (Reeves p.115)  We can see that many of the incomes generated by the working forces are obligating for the foreign debt payments.  One of the irrational policies that spread hunger in Africa is the structural adjustment program (SAPs):
…promoted by the World Bank and other donors.  Central to adjustment programs, cuts in government food subsidies have triggered riots in many African capitals during the last several years and have meant that many families are unable to purchase sufficient amounts of bread, sugar, or other basic commodities… Throughout the continent, SAPs have called for the reduction of the often-bloated civil service sector, triggering widespread urban unemployment, and have also prescribed repeated currency devaluation, thus reducing the purchasing power of consumers.  (Reeves p.124)
The third factor that triggers hunger is the militarization Africa.  Throughout the years, in wars were fought inside and outside the lands of Africa.  These wars had negatively weakened the production of the people.  “War turns farmlands into battle zones, removes able-bodied producers from the agricultural sector, disrupts transport and marketing, and directs the bulk of foreign exchange earnings to the military.” (Reeves p.111)  As ... more

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BMW Swot

Strengths
BMW is a well-known company with a high status branding that has a very high recognition factor. The company has been strengths in both research and development and design as well as in marketing.  For example when it comes to marketing it was a BMW advertisement that was the first e-advertisement that made it to Campaigns 'Pick of the Week' (Doman). However, in a long-term purchase such as this there is a need for moire substance than just marketing, otherwise the life of the company would be relatively short due to the nature of the purchase. It is in these longer-term systems and strategies that we can see many of the strengths of BMW, we can consider these by starting with the market position of the company.
BMW as well as Mercedes' and a few other companies have managed too successful attain m a market position where they have a focus on a narrow range of exclusive cars. These can be seen as aimed at the market place that is not also sensitive to price, and as such we must argue that the market positioning may be seen as a strength as there will not be such a reaction if the economic conditions change. The customers that are in the target group are happy to pay a premium price for what they perceive as a premium product (Thompson).
This may not be so true of the subsidiary companies that have had different problems, such as the ill-fated Rover group. However, the core product has remained strong (Thompson). This may be seen as diversification, and some of the diversification may also be seen as a strength, for example the purchase of Rolls Royce where there is a similar strategy, however the range and target market are even more focussed and exclusive.
The strategy of BMW is designed to be defensive against other car manufactures, and as we will see when it comes to the section on threats this is a defensive strategy that BMW have adopted after learning the need for defensive as well as aggressive marketing and strategies. These strategies can be seen as follows;

 Customers may choose any color that the wish from the entire range, this is only matched by Rolls Royce and Aston Martin, other companies offer a choice of color but only within a limited range (Thompson). The advantage of this is by differentiation and the gaining of a competitive advantage, the target market here is different from he other companies that offer the same facility of choice. Therefore there is an advantage over companies such as Toyota and Mercedes. There is also a very wide range of optional extras (BMW).
 The marketing as well as design emphases the differentiation by focusing on safety, the environment, as well as comfort and economy (Thompson). This is emphasized in all models and can also be seen as reinforcing the branding of the BMW logo and name.
 the way in which the company is run allows for a high level of control. The national BMW sales companies in each country are all wholly owned subsidiaries of the company. This is also co-ordinated with the strategic location of the parts warehouses so that they are in the most beneficial locations (Thompson).
 The computer system that BMW use for the ordering of parts by the independent distributors is also very efficient, reducing the time it takes between placing and order ands supply. The orders are placed directly into the BMW central computer for processing (Thompson).
 There has been a sting message form BMW that it intends to retain its independent position, and this appears to have given the market confidence in the company, as such the company may be seen as stronger financial in the markets own perception (Thompson).  
 In the United States BMW managed to gain a first mover advantage in terms of its European competitors, being the first company to produce cars on this continent (Thompson).
However we can also argue that it was this international desire that also bought about a realization of some of the weaknesses of the company.

Weaknesses
There has also been a desire to make use of strategic alliances and acquisitions. This has not always ... more

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