Looking for essays on ieee standards? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.
How Ethernet Works
What Is Ethernet and How Is It Used?
Invention of Ethernet
A gentlemen by the name of Bob Metcalfe realized that he could improve on a system called the Aloha System which arbitrated access to a shared communications channel. He developed a new system that included a mechanism that detects when a collision occurs (collision detect). The system also includes listen before talk, in which stations listen for activity (carrier sense) before transmitting, and supports access to a shared channel by multiple stations (multiple access). Put all these components together, and you can see why the Ethernet channel access protocol is called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD). Metcalfe also developed a much more sophisticated backoff algorithm, which, in combination with the CSMA/CD protocol, allows the Ethernet system to function all the way up to 100 percent load.
In late 1972, Metcalfe and his Xerox PARC colleagues developed the first experimental Ethernet system to interconnect the Xerox Alto. The Alto was a personal workstation with a graphical user interface, and experimental Ethernet was used to link Altos to one another, and to servers and laser printers. The signal clock for the experimental Ethernet interfaces was derived from the Alto's system clock, which resulted in a data transmission rate on the experimental Ethernet of 2.94 Mbps.
Metcalfe's first experimental net was called the Alto Aloha Network. In 1973 Metcalfe changed the name to Ethernet, to make it clear that the system could support any computer, and not just Altos, and to point out that his new network mechanisms had evolved well beyond the Aloha system. He chose to base the name on the word ether as a way of describing an essential feature of the system: the physical medium (cable) carries bits to all stations, much the same way that the old luminiferous ether was once thought to propagate electromagnetic waves through space. Physicists Michelson and Morley disproved the existence of the ether in 1887, but Metcalfe decided that it was a good name for his new network system that carried signals to all computers. Thus, Ethernet was born.
The Ethernet System
This is a brief tutorial on the Ethernet system. We'll begin with the origins of Ethernet and the Ethernet standards, and then describe the essential features of Ethernet operation.
Ethernet is a local area network (LAN technology that transmits information between computers at speeds of 10 and 100 million bits per second (Mbps). Currently the most widely used version of Ethernet technology is the 10-Mbps twisted-pair variety.
The 10-Mbps Ethernet media varieties include the original thick coaxial system, as well as thin coaxial, twisted-pair, and fiber optic systems. The most recent Ethernet standard defines the new 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet system which operates over twisted-pair and fiber optic media.
Ethernet is a Vendor-Neutral Network Technology
There are several LAN technologies in use today, but Ethernet is by far the most popular. Industry estimates indicate that as of 1994 over 40 million Ethernet nodes had been installed worldwide. The widespread popularity of Ethernet ensures that there is a large market for Ethernet equipment, which also helps keep the technology competitively priced.
From the time of the first Ethernet standard, the specifications and the rights to build Ethernet technology have been made easily available to anyone. This openness, combined with the ease of use and robustness of the Ethernet system, resulted in a large Ethernet market and is another reason Ethernet is so widely implemented in the computer industry.
The vast majority of computer vendors today equip their products with 10-Mbps Ethernet attachments, making it possible to link all manner of computers with an Ethernet LAN. As the 100-Mbps standard becomes more widely adopted, computers are being equipped with an Ethernet interface that operates at both 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps. The ability to link a wide range of computers using a vendor-neutral network technology is an essential feature for today's LAN managers. Most LANs must support a wide variety of computers purchased from different vendors, which requires a high degree of network interoperability of the sort that Ethernet provides.
Development of Ethernet Standards
Ethernet was invented at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in the 1970s by Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe. It was designed to ... more
Find essay on Ieee Standards
1. Investigate the instruction set and architectural features of a modern RISC processor such as the Digital Equipment Corporation Alpha or Motorola/IBM PowerPC. In what ways does it differ from the architecture of the Intel Pentium processor family?
The main difference between the architectures of Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) Alpha and Intel's Pentium processors are the instruction sets. In this paper I intend on defining both RISC and CISC processors. In doing this I will be comparing DEC's Alpha 21164 (a microprocessor that implements the Alpha architecture) and also Intel's Pentium processors (from the Pentium-R through the Pentium II).
Reduced Instruction Set Computing or RISC processing is a CPU architecture with an instruction set that eliminates some (but not all) complex instructions by pairing down and reducing them in complexity so that instructions can be performed in a single processor cycle. This is accomplished through high-level compilers that breakdown the more complex, less frequently used instructions into simpler instructions. Thus, allowing the RISC architecture to im-plement a smaller instruction set that utilizes more registers and eliminating the need for microcode.
"The Alpha architecture is a 64-bit load and store RISC architecture designed with particular emphasis on speed, multiple instruction issue, multiple processors, and software migration from many operating systems." (1, pg. 1-1) Most recent CPU designs are superscalar and superpipelined. Superscalar means that the architecture provides two pipelines for executing multiple instructions in parallel. Superpipelining increases the number of pipeline stages, allowing for results from either pipeline to be simultaneously used to avoid stalls thus, improving data flow by removing data dependency. "The 21164 microprocessor is a superscalar pipelined processor manufactured using 0.5-micron CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor) technology." (1, pg.1-3) The Alpha 21164 can issue four instructions in a single clock cycle. This combined with the low-latency and/or high-throughput features in the instruction issue unit and the on-chip components of the memory subsystem reduce the average cycles per instruction. All data manipulation is done between registers. The registers are 64 bits in length and all instructions are 32 bits in length. Memory operations are either load or store operations.
Since many early computers had extremely limited memory and processing power, complex instruction sets were developed. Complex instruction computing or CISC processing is a CPU architecture in which a large number of instructions are hardcoded into the chip. Intel's Pentium processors still adhere to this philosophy.
The Pentium processor was Intel's first CPU to employ superscalar architecture. With its 3.3 million transistors it is able to execute two instructions per clock cycle resulting in twice the integer performance relative of an Intel 486 CPU running at the same frequency. Pentium also employed on-chip dual-processing support as well as an onboard interrupt controller.
Next came the Pentium Pro, which introduced dynamic execution technology that pre-dicts the program flow through multiple branches. Multiple branch prediction lets the CPU pre-fetch possible next instructions rather than waiting for the outcome. This technology can actually change the order of executed instructions based on analyzed data dependencies, which in turn provides optimum execution speed. However, the Pentium Pro was only available in speeds from 150MHz to 200MHz and has only 16KB of internal cache (half as much as the MMX).
In 1997 Intel introduced the Pentium MMX processor. The MMX processor added1.2 million more transistors (4.5 million total) and also SIMD technology (Single Instruction, Multiple Data). SIMD technology included 57 new instructions, 4 new data types and eight 64-bit registers.
As in the original Pentium, the MMX Pentium provides both a fixed-point integer data path that allows up to two operations to be executed simultaneously, and a floating point data path that allows one operation to be performed at a time. In addition, the MMX Pentium provides a new MMX data path that allows up to two MMX operations to execute simultaneously, or up to one MMX operation and one integer operation (in the integer data path) to execute simultaneously. The inte-ger data path includes two ALUs and supports operations on 8-, 16-, and 32-bit integers. (4)
The MMX processor is available in speeds from 166MHz to 333MHz.
Finally the Pentium II processor combines the best features of both the Pentium Pro and Pentium MMX on one chip. Including a 64-bit dual ... more
What long should essays be?
Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.
What makes an effective essay?
An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.
What should be included on an essay?
A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.
What They say About Free Essay
I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling
I: Local area network bridges
Local area network bridges Local Area Network Bridges Both the physical distance that Local Area Network (LAN) can cover and the number of hosts that can be attached to it are limited. To overcome this limitation, bridges are introduced as devices which connect LANs at the MAC layer. The purpose of bridges is to allow hosts attached to different LANs to communicate as if they were located on the same LAN. In contrast to repeaters, that act at the physical layer and allow all traffic to cross LAN...
E: How Ethernet Works
How Ethernet Works What Is Ethernet and How Is It Used? ITSK2511 Cecil Jackson Invention of Ethernet A gentlemen by the name of Bob Metcalfe realized that he could improve on a system called the Aloha System which arbitrated access to a shared communications channel. He developed a new system that included a mechanism that detects when a collision occurs (collision detect). The system also includes listen before talk, in which stations listen for activity (carrier sense) before transmitting, and...
E: Processor Comparison
Processor Comparison 1. Investigate the instruction set and architectural features of a modern RISC processor such as the Digital Equipment Corporation Alpha or Motorola/IBM PowerPC. In what ways does it differ from the architecture of the Intel Pentium processor family? The main difference between the architectures of Digital Equipment Corporation\'s (DEC) Alpha and Intel\'s Pentium processors are the instruction sets. In this paper I intend on defining both RISC and CISC processors. In doing t...
E: Cable modems
cable modems Two modem technologies have emerged over the past year for switched data communications services. Cable Modems operate over two-way hybrid fiber/coax and provide user rates as high as 10 Mbps. ADSL Modems (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines) operate over existing copper telephone lines and provide rates as high as 9 Mbps. Both technologies address the large markets for Internet access, remote LAN access for work at home and telecommuting, and network access for the hundreds of mill...
: Wireless Technology
Wireless Technology Wireless Technology and Computers Wireless Technology can provide many benefits to computing including faster response to queries, reduced time spent on paperwork, increased online time for users, just-in-time and real time control, tighter communications between clients and hosts. Wireless Computing is governed by two general forces: Technology, which provides a set of basic building blocks and User Applications, which determine a set of operations that must be carried out e...
S: DSL Technology
DSL Technology The accelerated growth of content rich applications and online gaming, which demand high bandwidth, has changed the nature of information networks. High-speed communication is now an ordinary requirement throughout business, government, academic, and home office environments. Internet access, telecommuting, and remote LAN access are three of the clearly defined services that network access providers are offering now. These rapidly growing applications are placing a new level of de...
T: Floating Point Coprocessors
Floating Point Coprocessors Floating Point Coprocessors The designer of any microprocessor would like to extend its instruction set almost infinitely but is limited by the quantity of silicon available (not to mention the problems of testability and complexity). Consequently, a real microprocessor represents a compromise between what is desirable and what is acceptable to the majority of the chip\'s users. For example, the 68020 microprocessor is not optimized for calculations that require a lar...
A: Desision support systems
Desision support systems Abstract Computers have been used to support human decision-making for several decades, and increasingly, formal argumentation models are being used in their design. However, their use raises a number of conceptual and social-ethical questions that have yet to be fully addressed. We explore some questions raised by two current proposals for computer-mediated argumentation and decision-making, in particular the assessment of substantive quality, inclusiveness, and noncoer...
N: Computer Communications: Bus Network
Computer Communications: Bus Network Computer Communications: Bus Network Bus Network, in computer science, a topology (configuration) for a local area network in which all nodes are connected to a main communications line (bus). On a bus network, each node monitors activity on the line. Messages are detected by all nodes but are accepted only by the node(s) to which they are addressed. Because a bus network relies on a common data highway, a malfunctioning node simply ceases to communicate; i...
D: Survey of Wireless Computing
Survey of Wireless Computing Survey of Wireless Computing School Of Computer Science Florida International University Abstract Wireless technology can provide many benefits to computing including faster response to queries, reduced time spent on paperwork, increased online time for users, just-in-time and real time control, tighter communications between clients and hosts. Wireless Computing is governed by two general forces: Technology, which provides a set of basic building blocks and User App...
A: Overview Of Video On Demand Systems
Overview Of Video On Demand Systems Overview of Video On Demand Systems Joseph Newcomer SCOPE INTRODUCTION THE INITIATIVE FOR WORLDWIDE MULTIMEDIA TELECONFERENCING AND VIDEO SERVER STANDARDS NEW BUSINESS IMPERATIVES STARTING WITH STANDARDS TWO STANDARDS, ONE GOAL STANDARDS FIRST SUMMARY CONTENT PREPARATION: REQUIREMENTS: CODECs/Compression Object Oriented Database Management Systems Encoding Verification SUMMARY VIDEO SERVER REQUIREMENTS LIMITATIONS PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTION NETWORK: LAN TYPES PROTO...
Internet4 Si hace tan slo unos pocos aos el ordenador personal se empezaba a introducir de forma comn en casa, ahora se est introduciendo, de igual forma, la telemtica. En el trabajo ya es una herramienta imprescindible y ,cada vez ms, nos encontramos con este trmino en cualquiera de nuestras actividades: educacin, ocio, informacin, operaciones bancarias, etc. Es tan fuerte el impacto que ha provocado sobre nuestra sociedad que se est hablando de una nueva revolucin, la revolucin de ...
D: Cable Connection: The Way to Surf
Cable Connection: The Way to Surf By Brad v.O. Date: March 10, 1998 The Telecommunications Act of 1996 opened the way for cable TV (CATV) companies to become full-fledged telecommunications companies, offering two- way voice and data communications services, in addition to television programming. After passage of the Act, the cable companies were eager to expand into the new fields of business that had been opened to them, especially the rapidly growing Internet Service Provider (ISP) business. ...
802.11b In todays fast paced, connection oriented, streaming digital world of information exchange, networking has become one of the highest priorities among the information markets requirements. However, the current standards in networking are becoming nigh on obsolete. The most commonly used standards in a networking situation have been in use for several years, and in the information technology field, that is rapidly approaching the venerable stage. Recently however, new standards have bega...
Token ring Token ring is a local area network protocol which resides at the data link layer (DLL) of the OSI model. It uses a special three-byte frame called a token that travels unidirectionally around a star-wired logical ring. Token ring frames travel completely around the loop. The name \'Token Ring\' is misleading since the physical topology is a loop. Each station passes or repeats the special token frame around the ring to its nearest downstream neighbor. This token-passing process is use...
Wireless Networking pg2 Wireless Networking The term wireless networking is a technology that enables two or more computers to communicate using standard network protocols without network cabling. The industry standard mainly used for wireless networking is IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) 802.11. What this standard is could be described as a wireless network with hardware that requires the use of technology, which deals with radio frequencies as well as data transmiss...
Wireless Security Introduction Wireless devices, like all technologies that provide external access to corporate networks, present security challenges. With wireless standards and practices still rapidly evolving, it is important to understand the strengths and limitations of available technologies in order to implement a secure solution. Extending current security policies to encompass wireless devices requires an understanding of the security features of both wireless devices and wireless netw...
DSL Technologies DSL (Digital Subscriber Line or Digital Subscriber Loop. A technology that enables high-speed transmission of digital data over regular copper telephone lines. DSL works by using more of the capacity of the phone line. Voice and traditional modems work by modulating a signal in a limited range of frequencies (thousands of cycles); broadband sends a digital signal over a wide frequency (millions of cycles). The accelerated growth of content rich applications and online gaming, wh...
LAN Topologies When designing the layout of a local area network, an organization can choose from a variety of different technologies on which to base the backbone of their LAN. The technology choices that the organization adopts will play a critical role in the performance of its LAN. Two important LAN backbone issues, which I will introduce, include: A network based on Ethernet or Token Ring technology Factors to consider when choosing a Network Operating System LANs are also known as subn...
Survey Of Wireless Computing
Survey Of Wireless Computing Survey of Wireless Computing School Of Computer Science University Of Houston - Clear Lake Abstract Wireless technology can provide many benefits to computing including faster response to queries, reduced time spent on paperwork, increased online time for users, just-in-time and real time control, tighter communications between clients and hosts. Wireless Computing is governed by two general forces: Technology, which provides a set of basic building blocks and User A...
Data Link Control (internet)
Data Link Control (internet) Society has become based solely on the ability to move large amounts of information across vast distances quickly. The natural evolution of computers and this need for ultra-fast communications has caused a global network of interconnected computers to develop. This global network allows a person to send E-mail across the world in mere fractions of a second, and enables even the common person to access information world-wide. With the new advancements in technology t...
Cable vs. v.90 modems
Cable vs. v.90 modems Cable Modems Cable modems emerged in consumer markets as an alternative to ISDN and regular modems only a couple of years ago. Promises like speed up 30 Mbps to connect to the internet sounds very attractive given that the service charge is only $35-$55 a month. But the whole thing has been overhyped in my opinion, none of the cable companies mention that the subscribers share the bandwidth plus most cable modems use 10BaseT interface to connect to the PC or Mac which autom...
San Implementation SAN implementation over Gigabit Ethernet A Storage Area Network is virtualized storage. A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated, centrally managed, secure information infrastructure, which enables any-to-any interconnection of servers and storage systems. A SAN can be configured to provide a nearly infinite pool of storage that you can grow and move between servers as they need it. The storage can be added to and removed without requiring the server to be rebooted. The ser...
Dsl Vs Cable
Dsl Vs Cable Cable Modems and ADSL Two modem technologies have emerged over the past year for switched data communications services. Cable Modems operate over two-way hybrid fiber/coax and provide user rates as high as 10 Mbps. ADSL Modems (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines) operate over existing copper telephone lines and provide rates as high as 9 Mbps. Both technologies address the large markets for Internet access, remote LAN access for work at home and telecommuting, and network access fo...
Dsl vs cable
dsl vs cable Two modem technologies have emerged over the past year for switched data communications services. Cable Modems operate over two-way hybrid fiber/coax and provide user rates as high as 10 Mbps. ADSL Modems (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines) operate over existing copper telephone lines and provide rates as high as 9 Mbps. Both technologies address the large markets for Internet access, remote LAN access for work at home and telecommuting, and network access for the hundreds of mill...