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ieee 802 11 networking
Computer Network Modifications.


Regional Offices.

Existing Bus Topology (hubs) should be replaced with star topology using switches.

In star topology, all devices are connected to a common central location, typically a hub or a switch, in this case we will be using switches. (See diagram 1) when a node sends data to the central location, the central device retransmits the information and sends it to the destination. Because all cabling is connected to the central device , if one link fails, only that portion of the network will fail. The rest of the network will not be affected. However, if the central devise fails the entire network will fail. A star topology can have a maximum of 1024 nodes on a LAN  and is commonly used for 10BaseT. (IEEE 802.3) and 100BaseTX (IEEE 802.3u) Ethernet.

The advantages of using a Star Topology include reliability and ease of maintenance and installation. Monitoring and troubleshooting can be maintained at the central device, providing easier maintenance. A Star topology allows for greater reliability because each node is connected to the central devise by a segment. If one segment breaks, only that node loses access to the network so the rest of the network is not affected. Because each node is connected to the central device, star topologies also allow  for an easy network layout, providing the network administrator easier installation over the other topologies.

The disadvantage of this topology is cost. With each devise being connected to the central location, more cabling is required than with other topologies. In addition there is a cost of the central device.

This is a LAN topology in which endpoints on a network are connected to a common central switch by point to point links. A ring topology that is organised as a star implements a unidirectional closed loop star, instead of point to point links.







(Diagram 1: Star Toplogy)
Star topology is the most widely used models in networking and are extremely stable



By using Assymetric switches (10/100) over the existing CAT 5 UTP cabling.
CAT 5 UTP  can accommodate up to 100MB/S

Switches have many benefits. A LAN switch allows many users to communicate in parallel through the use of virtual circuits and dedicated network segments in a collision free environment. This maximises the bandwidth availability on the shared medium. Also, moving to a switched LAN environment is very cost effective because you can reuse the existing hardware and cabling. The power of the switch combined with the software to configure LANs gives network administrators greater flexibility in managing the network. It would also increase bandwidth to workstations (providing that 10/100 network are fitted in workstations) which would be suited to the high bandwidth requirements of Jaw tappers.

As shown in diagram 2, an asymmetric LAN switch provides switched connections between ports of unlike bandwidth, such as combination of 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps ports. Asymmetric switching makes the most of staff/ server network traffic flows where multiple clients are communicating with the server at the same time, requiring more bandwidth dedicated to the switch port that the server is connected to in order to prevent a bottleneck at that port.


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game theroy

Microwave Oven Interference on Wireless LANs
Abstract - Commercial microwave ovens as applied in
restaurants have two magnetron tubes and compared
to domestic kitchen counterparts they spread the
higher RF power and radiated heating energy more
evenly. The domestic kitchen or residential microwave
ovens have only one magnetron tube. The interference
from the commercial type of microwave ovens is more
difficult to characterise than the interference from the
residential ones. The commercial type of microwave
ovens radiate a CW-like interference that sweeps over
tens of MHz during the two bursts per mains power
cycle. The residential ones give a CW-like interference
that has a more or less stable frequency near 2.45 GHz
occurring once per mains power cycle. The impact of
the interference from the commercial type of
microwave ovens on wireless LANs conforming the
IEEE 802.11 standard for both DSSS (direct sequence
spread spectrum) and FHSS (frequency hopping
spread spectrum) has been evaluated.
The release of the 2.4 GHz unlicensed band (2400 -2483.5
MHz) for ISM (industrial, scientific, medical
applications) prompted a significant interest in the design
of wireless LAN products. Interference from extraneous
sources (unintentional radiators) impacts the reliability of
communication in this 2.4 GHz ISM band. Sources of
such interference are the millions of residential
microwave ovens radiating at frequencies close to 2.45
GHz, and they have been described largely in the
literature. Commercial microwave ovens, based on two
magnetron tubes as used in restaurants, have been hardly
described in the literature. Since commercial ovens are
expected more often in the vicinity of office buildings
with a high population density of office equipment and
PCs, this type has been evaluated with respect to the
nature of the interference signal and the impact on
wireless LANs operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band.
At first, published material on residential microwave
ovens, the reports from the NTIA (National
Telecommunications and Information Administration, in
the US) - [1] and [2] - are discussed. Next, the
commercial microwave ovens and the nature of their
interference is considered. The characterization of the
interference from such ovens requires a dedicated
measurement set up. Then the robustness of wireless
LANs based on DSSS and FHSS conformant to IEEE
802.11 against CW interference is discussed. At last, the
interference from the commercial microwave ovens on
wireless LANs based on DSSS and FHSS is measured
with a dedicated set up and the impact of the interference
The NTIA makes [1] and [2] some pessimistic
conclusions about the possibility of sustaining highly-reliable
communication links in this band. The
ubiquitousness of these ovens and the wideband
interference picture that emerges from peak-power
measurements using, for example, conventional spectrum
analysers in max-hold mode and multiple sweeps, has led
to these pessimistic conclusions. The NTIA describes
measurement results for residential microwave ovens with
a maximum EIRP for these radiators that lies lay between
Some shortcomings in the NTIA measurement methods
are presented in [3]. The NTIA reports give results of
frequency- and time-domain measurements. Spectrum
analysers in max-hold mode were used to measure in the
frequency domain, which resulted in traces that capture
the peak emission, at each frequency sampling point,
occurring during the time interval of observation.
Spectrum analysers in zero-span trace mode were used to
find how the signal power around the selected frequency
varies over time. [3] mentions that the NTIA peak
spectrum measurements and frequency-domain
characterisation with time-domain plots show a pulsed III. RESIDENTIAL MICROWAVE OVENS
Microwave ovens have become more popular over the last
fifteen years and can be found in over two hundred
million home kitchens. The heating source of these
residential microwave ovens is based on a single
magnetron tube mostly positioned in an upper corner.
Without further provisions, such an oven would produce
an uneven heating effect, because of static stable standing
wave patterns inside the cavity of the oven. Therefore, the
usage of a rotating disk results in such a heating process
at which the different sides of the rotated food or drink
are illuminated more evenly. The power consumption is
Fig. 1. Max-hold spectrum for residential microwave
Fig. 2. Zero-span spectrum for residential microwave
NTIA measurement approach. With a high speed digital
oscilloscope it can be shown, that during the active period
the emitted signal is a CW with a frequency that moves
over a few MHz. The beginning of the burst looks like a
pulsed CW of which the frequency can vary more, and the
radiated signal strength is lower. The end of the burst
looks like the pulsed beginning and also has a lower level.
Although there are many differences between the
emissions from ovens of different manufacturers, the
centre burst frequency is mostly somewhere around 2450 -
2460 MHz, and the sweep goes over 2 - 6 MHz. Likewise,
the total active period ... more

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