Human Pregnancy


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human pregnancy Abortion

Abortion
     
     Abortion has always been a controversial subject among everybody whether they are involved directly or indirectly, whether they are for it or against it. It is nearly impossible to find someone who doesnt have an opinion about abortion. Both those who favor or oppose abortion make superior arguments to defend their beliefs and views. Personally, I think every last person is entitled to his or her own opinions, beliefs, thoughts, and rights. And yes, women have rights too, and denying women the right to choose abortion in the early stages of fetal development is denying her rights as a US citizen and is also discriminating against her. I think that abortion should be restricted to the first 21 weeks, which is when most of the tests can be taken to determine the health of the fetus. Anything after that might be immoral, since the fetus can very well live outside the mothers womb; although, it does depend on the situation.

Abortion should unquestionably not be used as a primary birth control use. It should be determined based on the circumstances of the pregnancy. A woman should have the choice to have an abortion if she is raped, impregnated by a disturbed man or by incest. It would be unfair to force a rape victim to bear an unwanted baby and give up all the dreams she ever had and be reminded of that rape for the rest of her life. I also think a womans life should not be sacrificed or put at risk, a woman should be able to abort if there is any complications or a risk to her life and a threat to the babys life. It would be morally wrong to bring to this world a severely deformed, extremely handicapped, or an incompetent baby and watch him or her suffer for the rest of their lives. That would not only affect the mothers life, but that would affect the babys life also. That child would never be average, never be happy and would feel sad for not being like the other children. It takes so much energy, will power, dedication, prayers and money to take care of an ill-fated baby and that is why they commonly end up in institutions regardless of how much they are loved. And the worse thing is there is not much they can achieve in their lives. What kind of life would that baby have if the mother passes away while in labor or delivering? There is only so much a father can do. How fair would that be? If the woman is not prepared financially, emotionally and physically, she should have the choice; every child should be wanted. After all, there are enough children out there that are either on welfare, foster care or abused. They might also feel rejected by society, by their parents who did not want them in the first place, and might rebel later on in their teen years. Pro-life wants abortion to become illegal; they think that its murder. They say the baby is innocent, did nothing to deserve being killed, did not ask to be born and has the right to live. Which is understandable and logical but the fetus has no feelings or memories, it is just a mass of tissues at first. But think about the result, think about the future of that baby, she or he does not deserve to live in melancholy, in poverty and abuse, she or he might be resented later on, might have a ghastly life with terrible parents that do not care and can not afford raising them. Pro-life wants to pass human life amendment to the constitution declaring the unborn fetus to be a full person from the moment of conception. A womans body has the ability to abort naturally by the way of miscarriage. Natural abortions are happening everyday. Does that mean woman are going to be questioned about the circumstances of the miscarriage, are they going to be investigated or liable or even prosecuted? Who is going to be held accountable for the death of that fetus? Where do we draw the line? Pro-life promotes adoption, which is a very good way to ... more

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Ivf - in vitro fertilisation

10, 000 Australian couples are treated with IVF each year.  The expensive and rather risky program (costing around $4000 excluding overheads) allows infertile couples to achieve pregnancy when conventional therapy has failed or is unacceptable. The procedure involves placing eggs that have been fertilised in a cultured dish directly into the uterus.  A successful procedure will go as follows:

- Couples are counselled about their situation and informed on the procedure, their obligations and rights.

- Medical history, physical examination and other related tests are taken to determine candidacy.

- The woman receives hormone injections (Human Menopausal Gonadotropin and recombinant Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) to stimulate development of the ovarian follicles which contain eggs.  Frequent blood tests are taken to
monitor hormone secretion from the ovary and pituitary gland.

- When eggs are ripe, they  are retrieved by transvaginal needle aspiration, guided by ultrasound.  At the same time, semen samples from the husband (or donor) are obtained.  The most active and healthy sperm are selected by forcing
them to swim through a culture medium.

- The egg and sperm are placed together in a suitable medium for fertilisation to occur in a culture dish.  If fertilisation does not occur after 72 hours, the oocytes (incompletely developed eggs) and sperm are disposed of. The
resulting embryos are observed for the next few days.

- A small plastic tube is inserted through cervix to place embryos into the uterus. The patient is able to go home a few hours later with minimal discomfort. During the first two weeks after embryonic transfer, hormones (such as Progesterone or HCG) may be administered.

The procedure above can bring either joy or disappointment.  A successful patient from the Atlanta Reproductive Healthcare Center states:  “For all of us, hearing that we are pregnant will be the most wonderful news. But remember, as easily as they told you that you are pregnant, it can be just as easy for them to tell you that you have lost your child.”  Of the 10,000 people treated each year in Australia, there is a 92% failure rate.  More often than not, something goes wrong and couples are left with a hefty medical bill, no pregnancy and compounded emotional stress.  Every stage of IVF contains and element of risk, from the administration of drugs to the actual birth of the child.

Woman who undergo IVF are at risk of experiencing serious side effects.  Many of these are caused by the administration of drugs and hormones which can result in reactions, rashes, swelling, headaches, irritability, restlessness, depression, fatigue, hot flashes (with the drug Lupron) increased stimulation of the ovary, ovarian enlargement, hyperstimulation syndrome (severe ovarian enlargement) and fluid accumulation around the lungs.  More seriously, ovaries can rupture leaving blood to accumulate in the abdominal cavity and clot.  Fortunately, this only happen in about 1.3% of patients and can be treated.

The figures indicate that many couples are unsuccessful with the IVF program and this can be due to problems associated with the gametes or the intricate laboratory procedures.  Occasionally, the time of egg maturation may be misjudged, not predictable, may occur prior to egg retrieval or may fail to occur at all.  During the transvaginal oocyte retrieval, it is possible
that the eggs are unable to be obtained.  There is also a risk of bleeding, infection or injury to the bladder and other abdominal organs which may result in paralysis, brain damage or even death.  Further problems may occur if the husband’s(or donor’s) semen specimen isn’t suitable or insufficiently thawed or  if the eggs don’t survive the micro-manipulation process (a procedure where a few sperm are injected into the outer layer of the egg).

The embryotic stage also presents some risks.  The embryo may not develop normally due to an absence of cell division, the embryo may become infected due to laboratory accidents or malfunction of equipment, the  transfer of the embryo may be unsuccessful or implantation may not occur.  

More problems are present also during pregnancy and birth.  During the program, selected woman are required to undergo injections of natural progesterone.  Synthetic progesterone injections during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital heart malformations, anal blockage, abnormalities of bones, brain, spinal cord, ... more

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