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guilds Roots of AntiSemitism




After learning about the Holocaust, I’ve asked myself many times how this could have happened.  Why would anyone believe it’s acceptable to massacre an entire people?  This is my reasoning for writing my paper on how Christian theology influenced anti-Semitism.  Much of the Holocaust appears to have it’s beginning with Christian theology.  I will begin my paper with the early writings of Christians and continue chronologically until after World War II.
The Apostle Paul was one the first people to criticize the Jewish people. At first, he tried to explain to the Christians not to adopt a superior attitude towards the Jews.
IF THE PART OF THE DOUGH OFFERED AS FIRST FRUITS IS HOLY, THEN THE WHOLE BRANCH IS HOLY; AND IF THE ROOT IS HOLY, THEN THE BRANCHES ARE ALSO HOLY…DO NOT BOAST OVER THE BRANCHES.  IF YOU DO BOAST, REMEMBER THAT IT IS NOT YOU THAT SUPPORT THE ROOT, BUT THE ROOT SUPPORTS YOU.
At one point this appeared to be Paul’s feeling towards the Jews and the Christians.  His sentiment appeared to change, according to Christian suppressionists.  In the text Romans, many of Paul’s statements were misinterpreted by those Christians to make themselves appear more superior to the Jewish people.
…INCLUDING US WHOM HE HAS CALLED, NOT FROM THE JEWS ONLY BUT ALSO FROM THE GENTILES?  AS INDEED HE SAYS IN HOSEA, "THOSE WHO WERE NOT MY PEOPLE I WILL CALL ‘MY PEOPLE,’ AND HER WHO WAS NOT BELOVED I WILL CALL ‘BELOVED.’"  "AND IN THE VERY PLACE WHERE IT WAS SAID TO THEM, ‘YOU ARE NOT MY PEOPLE,’ THERE THEY SHALL BE CALLED CHILDREN OF THE LIVING GOD,"
…GENTILES, WHO DID NOT STRIVE FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS, HAVE ATTAINED IT, THAT IS, RIGHTEOUSNESS THROUGH FAITH; BUT ISRAEL, WHO DID STRIVE FOR THE RIGHTEOUSNESS THAT IS BASED ON THE LAW, DID NOT SUCCEED IN FULFILLING THAT LAW… [ROMANS 9]
 "In proclaiming his Christian message Paul stressed that the Jewish nation had been rejected by God, and the new Covenant had superseded the old," said David Cohn-Sherbok, in his book The Crucified Jew.  "In these ways the New Testament laid the foundations for later Christian hostility to the Jewish nation…and served as the basis for the early Church’s vilification of the Jews." (Cohn-Sherbok)
Another early Christian writing which may have encouraged Jewish hatred is the Gospels of John.  Scholars believe John wanted to gain favor with the Roman Hierarchy.  Therefore, he emphasized the Jewish involvement in the death of Christ and minimized the Roman role.  "The Gospel of John contains some of the most hostile anti-Jewish statement in the Christian scriptures.  So sharp is the contrast in that gospel between Jesus’ exhortations to his followers to love one another and the hostile references to the Jews…John is ‘a gospel of Christian love and Jew hatred.’" (Charlesworth)
Some examples of John’s apparent sentiments towards the Jewish people include the following.
…THE JEWS REPLIED…[JOHN 18:31]
…MY FOLLOWERS WOULD BE FIGHTING TO KEEP ME FROM BEING HANDED OVER TO THE JEWS…  
…HE WENT OUT TO THE JEWS AGAIN…[JOHN 18:38]
…THE JEWS ANSWERED HIM, "WE HAVE A LAW, AND ACCORDING TO THAT LAW HE OUGHT TO DIE BECAUSE HE HAS CLAIMED TO BE THE SON OF GOD." [JOHN 19:7]
…THE JEWS CRIED OUT, "IF YOU RELEASE THIS MAN, YOU ARE NO FRIEND OF THE EMPEROR…"  
…HE SAID TO THE JEWS, "HERE IS YOUR KING!"  THEY CRIED OUT, "AWAY WITH HIM!  AWAY WITH HIM!  CRUCIFY HIM!…"[JOHN 19:14]
Many scholars believe the Jews and Christians were still worshipping together around the middle of the first century.  They discussed and acknowledged their differences, like a family fight.  Yet, towards the end of the first century their relationships deteriorated.  After the destruction of the second Temple in 70 CE, the Gentiles appeared to break away from the Jews.  Jewish leaders who remained faithful to the Mosaic Law, began excommunicating Christian Jews under Nero’s leadership, ending decades of relatively peaceful coexistence and shared worship. (Hauer)
The presumed superiority of Christianity started to influence Christian teachings.  The ‘Letters of Barnabas’ (late first century or early second) repeatedly proclaims this belief:  I found many passages in his letter regarding superiority.
"…HEAPING UP YOUR SINS AND SAYING THAT THE COVENANT IS BOTH THEIRS AND OUR.  IT IS OURS:  BUT IN THIS WAY DID THEY ... more

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Music Business

The music publishing industry at a glance would seem to be those who print sheet music, method books, lead sheets, and all of the texts or notated music that musicians (and those aspiring to be musicians) use.  Years ago, this was what most music publishers did, but as the industry has evolved the process that become much more complex.  Music is not just ink and paper, intellectual material and property to the individual who writes it.  Therefore the song does not become a song when it is written down.  This is not an easy concept to grasp because the song by itself has no physical makeup. A song could exist once it is played for the first time, and songs can even exist inside the mind of a songwriter.  This concept is why the publishing business can be so complex; we are dealing with intellectual property.
The heart of the music publishing business lies in the rights to the original music.  After the music is successful enough to financially support itself the music is printed in mass quantities in a variety of ways.  This could be everything from guitar tabs to choral arrangements for a junior high choir.  The publishers main source of income is through record royalties, performance royalties received from companies like the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI), and the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers (SESAC) for performances of music copyrighted by the publisher.  These royalties could be from many different types of performances but most are though radio and songs on television.  The success of a songwriter lies in the greatly in the hands of his/her publisher. Normally we hear of a bands success when they are signed with a record deal, but most record companies not only produce and promote an album, they also act as the publisher who, when contracted, owns the rights to the music.   When a publisher own the song it is put in to their catalog.  Merchandise retailers have catalogs of their goods just like publishers have a catalog of songs that they own rights to.  Publishing firms such as Warner/Chappell, BMG Music, MCA Music, and Sony music have catalogs of many styles of music. These companies are referred to as full-line companies.  A broad repertoire allows them to market their music to many audiences.  Most of these full-line companys roots can be traced back to the music of Hollywood and the show music of Broadway.  Publishers today may have thousands of songwriters in its catalog including all styles of music from around the globe.  Representative Warner/Chappell owns, administers, or sub-publishes more that a million copyrights here and abroad.
Todays full-line publishers have many different divisions to their company.  Large publishers handle virtually every aspect of a writers music, its recordings, distribution, sales, promotion, advertising, touring, and legal affairs.  This figure lays out all the divisions a full-line publisher may have.
The administration division is the division that handles the operations of the firm.  All business affairs go through administration. When money is received from or paid to customers the firm the accounting divisions keeps all the financial records of these kinds of operations.  The accounting division also would handle loans given to artist that are signed to the firm under the publishers record label.  When a band records an album under a label they become a liability to the label because money has to be spent to record, produce and promote a artists music.  Full-line publishers front this money and all profits from the artist come back and are split 50-50 with the publisher and the writer. If the artist maintains the rights to their songs the record contract will include a controlled composition clause that calls for a reduced mechanical royalty paid to the artist by the record label.  This clause may reduce the royalty split to 75-25, the larger portion going to the record label.  This clause would not be insisted to artists who place the full rights to works in the hands of the record companys publisher.  The artist remains a liability to the publisher as long as the artist has not made as much money as was invested into them by ... more

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