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ground level ozone Environmental Pollution

Environmental Pollution

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Automobiles like these are around the world everyday, and their exhaust destroys
our air everyday.

Our environment is a major aspect of our life today. Many of us don't take our
Earth seriously and think that as long as pollution doesn't hurt them they can
go ahead and throw garbage on the ground or spill oil down the drain. Well to
many people have that theory and they are killing off our Earth and also
physically harming themselves from the air they breath and the water they swim
in. Our Earth is fragile like a human and people don't know. There are many
different types of environmental pollution (e.g. Water, air, atmospheric.)
     Scientists believe that all cities with populations exceeding 50,000
have some degree of air pollution. Burning garbage in open dumps causes air
pollution, and also it smells pretty bad. Air pollution comes from many
different sources. One of the major sources is carbon monoxide which manly comes
from automobiles, but also burning of fossil fuels, CFCs etc. Air pollution does
not leave the Earth it all gets trapped up in the atmosphere. This doesn't
bother most people, and they think that it will not harm them. People burn down
forests and people burn fossil fuels, and CFCs from aerosols. Every bit of this
harms our atmosphere. Factories and transportation depend on huge amounts of
fuel billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year.
When these fuels burn they introduce smoke and other, less visible, by-products
into the atmosphere. Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke
given off by power plants and automobiles, the cumulative effect of air
pollution poses a grave threat to humans and the environment. A big example of
smog is LA you can see the smog just hovering above the city. I don't think any
human alive should be subject to that kind of environment. Scientists believe
that all cities with populations exceeding 50,000 have some degree of air
pollution. Burning garbage in open dumps causes air pollution Scientist have
discovered that over the South Pole the ozone has a high level of ozone
depletion.
A computer-enhanced map, taken from satellite observations of ozone levels in
the atmosphere over the South Pole, shows the region of ozone depletion that has
begun to appear each spring over Antarctica.
     When you look at this picture you can see the big red spot right above
the South Pole. If this depletion opens up dangerous and deadly UV Rays from the
sun will come into Earth. Air pollution causes global warming which scientist
believe is making the Earth warmer and melting ice up in the South and North
Pole. The country Holland has had water from the ocean got too high for them and
flooded into towns. Holland spent millions of dollars to put up "dikes" which
are big barriers in the water to prevent their town to be completely submerged.
With the ocean getting deeper coastal cites all around the world could flood,
billions of dollars would be spent to try to prevent it, but in a while it could
not be stopped. Instead of waiting and having to spend all this money why don't
we put it together today and try different ways of preventing air pollution, it
would be much easier than all the trouble of stopping flooding.
     Water pollution is another major aspect of environmental pollution.
Water pollution is scary because over 75% of our Earth is covered by the ocean.
Water pollution comes from many different sources around the world. One major
pollutant that destroys the ocean is oil spills. The oil from an oil spill kills
hundreds of sea animals from fish, to whales, to birds. Below is a small list of
just some of the major oil spills. Notice how many tons were spilled into our
ocean... Notable Oil Spills Date     Location     Description     Tons
spilled Jan.-June, 1942     East coast of U.S.     German U-boat attacks on
tankers after     590,000 March 18, 1967     Land's End, Cornwall, England
Grounding of 'Torrey Canyon'     119,000 June 13, 1968     South Africa     Hull
failure of 'World Glory'     46,000 Nov. 5, 1969     Massachusetts     Hull
failure of 'Keo'     30,000 March 20, 1970     Tralhavet Bay, Sweden
Collision of 'Othello' with another ship     60,000 to 100,000 Dec. 19,
1972     Gulf of Oman     Collision of 'Sea Star' with another ship     115,000
May 12, 1976     La Coruna, Spain     Grounding of 'Urquiola'     100,000
Dec. 15, 1976     Nantucket, Mass.     Grounding of 'Argo Merchant'     26,000
Feb. 25, 1977     Pacific Ocean     Fire aboard 'Hawaiian Patriot'     99,000 March 16,
1978     Portsall, France     Grounding of 'Amoco Cadiz'     223,000 July 19,
1979     Trinidad and Tobago     Collision between 'Atlantic Empress'     300,000
Nov. 1, 1979     Galveston Bay, Tex.     Collision of 'Burmah Agate' with
36,000 Aug. 6, 1983     Cape Town, South Africa     Fire aboard 'Castillo de
Beliver'     250,000 March ... more

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Acid Rain
What is acid rain? Acid rain is the term for pollution caused when sulfur and
nitrogen dioxides combine with atmospheric moisture. The term 'acid rain' is
slightly misleading, and would be more accurate if deemed 'enhanced acid rain',
as rain occurs acidic naturally. Acidity is measured on what is know as the pH
scale. Fourteen is the most basic, seven is the most neutral, and zero is the
most acidic. Pure rain has a pH level of 7, which is exactly neutral. The
acidity of rain is determined by the pH of pure water in reaction with
atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, resulting in carbonic acid. These
particles partly dissociate to produce hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. A
bicarbonate atom is an ion formed by one hydrogen atom, one carbon at atom, and
three oxygen atoms, and is very effective in natural waters at neutralizing
hydrogen ions and reducing acidity. The dissociation results in the natural
acidity of pure rain, which is moderately acidic at a pH of 5.7. Rain less than

5.7 is considered 'acid rain', meaning it has reacted with acidic atmospheric
gases other than carbon dioxide, such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.

Sulfur dioxide is produced by electric utilities, industrial, commercial and
residential heating, smelters, diesel engines and marine and rail transport,
which creates sulfuric acid in rain. Nitrogen dioxide will also react with the
rain, caused largely by transportation (cars, trucks, planes, etc.) and electric
utilities, producing nitric acid. There is a certain degree of naturally
occurring acidity in rain water. This acid is from reaction with alkaline
chemicals, found in soils, lakes and stream, and can occasionally occur when a
volcano erupts as well. Bacterial action in soils and degasing from oceanic
plankton also contribute to the acidity found in rain. More than 90% of the
sulfur and 95% of the nitrogen emissions which occur in North America are due to
the pollution created by humans.1 How Is Acid Rain Formed? Acid rain consists
mainly of acids formed in the atmosphere. It consists of the oxides of sulfur,

SO2 and SO3, and of nitrogen NO and NO2. Let us examine the major contributor to
acid rain, sulfur oxides. Natural sources which emit sulfur dioxide include
volcanoes, sea spray, plankton and rotting vegetation. Despite these natural
occurrences, the burning of fossil fuels (such as coal and oil) can be largely
blamed for the emissions. The chemical reactions begin as energy from sunlight,
in the form of photons, hit ozone molecules (O3) to form free oxygen (O2), as
well as single reactive oxygen atoms (O). The oxygen atoms react with water
molecules (H2O), producing electrically charged, negative hydroxyl radicals
(HO). These hydroxyl radicals are responsible for oxidizing sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen dioxide, which produces sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Some particles
will settle to the ground (in the form of acid deposition) or vegetation can
absorb some of the SO2 gas directly from the atmosphere. When sulfur dioxide
comes in contact with the atmosphere, it oxidizes and forms a sulfate ion. It
becomes sulfuric acid as it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and falls down
to earth. Oxidation occurs most in clouds, especially in heavily polluted air,
where other compounds such as ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction,
increasing the amount of sulfur dioxide changing to sulfuric acid. Not all of
the sulfur dioxide is converted to sulfuric acid, and it is not uncommon for a
substantial amount to float up into the atmosphere, move to another area, and
return to earth as sulfur dioxide, unconverted. S (in fossil fuels) + O2 =* SO2

2 SO2 + O2 =* 2 SO3 Much of the sulfur dioxide is converted to sulfur trioxide
in the atmosphere SO3 + H2O =* H2SO4 The sulfur trioxide can then dissolve
within water to form sulfuric acid Nitric oxide and nitric dioxide are mainly
from power plants and exhaust fumes. Similar to sulfur dioxide, reactions are
heavily catalyzed in heavily polluted clouds where iron, manganese, ammonia and
hydrogen peroxide are present. Also, the formation of nitric acid can trigger
further reactions which release new hydroxyl radicals to generate more sulfuric
acid. The following is a typical reaction, which is direct combination of
nitrogen and oxygen at the high temperature inside a car engine. N2 + O2 + heat
=* 2NO 2NO + O2 =* 2NO2 This nitrogen monoxide immediately reacts with oxygen
and forms nitrogen dioxide in the following reaction 3NO2 + H2O =* 2HNO3 (aq) +

NO The nitrogen will then dissolve in water in ... more

ground level ozone

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