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global temperatures Global Warming

The earths climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The heat-trapping property of these gases is undisputed. Although uncertainty exists about exactly how earths climate responds to these gases, global temperatures are rising.  
Energy from the sun drives the earths weather and climate, and heats the earths surface; in turn, the earth radiates energy back into space. Atmospheric greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases) trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse.

                         

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are likely to accelerate the rate of climate change. Scientists expect that the average global surface temperature could rise 1-4.5F (0.6-2.5C) in the next fifty years, and 2.2-10F (1.4-5.8C) in the next century, with significant regional variation. Evaporation will increase as the climate warms, which will increase average global precipitation. Soil moisture is likely to decline in many regions, and intense rainstorms are likely to become more frequent. Sea level is likely to rise two feet along most of the U.S. coast.



                                               Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. Naturally occuring greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Certain human activities, however, add to the levels of most of these naturally occurring gases:
Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), and wood and wood products are burned.
Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and the raising of livestock.
Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels.
Very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes.
Each greenhouse gas differs in its ability to absorb heat in the atmosphere. HFCs and PFCs are the most heat-absorbent. Methane traps over 21 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide absorbs 270 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide. Often, estimates of greenhouse gas emissions are presented in units of millions of metric tons of carbon equivalents (MMTCE), which weights each gas by its GWP value, or Global Warming Potential.
Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea level, and change precipitation and other local climate conditions. Changing regional climate could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies. It could also threaten human health, and harm birds, fish, and many types of ecosystems. Deserts may expand into existing rangelands, and the character of some of our National Parks may be permanently altered.
Most of the United States is expected to warm, although sulfates may limit warming in some areas. Scientists currently are unable to determine which parts of the United States will become wetter or drier, but there is likely to be an overall trend toward increased precipitation and evaporation, more intense rainstorms, and drier soils.
Unfortunately, many of the potentially most important impacts depend upon whether rainfall increases or decreases, which can not be reliably projected for specific areas.
Individuals should recognize that collectively they can make a difference. Think back to the days before recycling became popular when everyone threw everything out in the trash. In less than 20 years, most households have gone from recycling little to nothing to recycling newspapers, plastics, glass and metal. Many businesses recycle paper and buy recycled products and many industries practice source reduction in their packaging efforts. An entire mindset has changed in one generation!
Taking action on global warming (or climate change) is similar. In some cases, it only takes a little change in lifestyle and behavior to make some big changes in greenhouse gas reductions. For other types of actions, the changes are more significant. When that action is multiplied by the 270 million people in the U.S. or the 6 billion people worldwide, the savings are significant.


                   
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Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs: How they became extinct
Something happened 65 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period, something so devastating that it altered the course of life on earth. It seems like it happened so sudden, as geologic time goes, that almost all the dinosaurs living on earth disappeared. So how did these dominant creatures just die off? Was it a slow extinction, or did it happen all of the sudden? These questions bring rise to many different beliefs on how the dinosaur disappeared over 65 million years ago.
Extinction itself is easily defined: When the birth rate fails to keep up with the death rate, it is called extinction. But, the definition does not answer the question about the nature or causes of extinction. Paleontologists generally divide extinctions into two types, for that of different causes arose. The first is called background extinctions, isolated extinctions of species due to a variety of causes. Included is out competition, depletion of resources in a habitat, changes in climate, the development or destruction of a mountain range, river channel migration, the eruption of a volcano, the drying of a lake, or the destruction of a forest, grassland, or wetland habitat. The second type of extinction is called mass extinctions. There are four main components involved: Large numbers of species go extinct; many types of species go extinct; the effects must be global; and the effects must occur in a geologically short period of time.1
The dinosaur could not have lived for ever. No creatures, no plants, no tiny bacteria are forever, not even Homo sapiens. Extinction is the fate of all species. One theory on how the dinosaurs became extinct is that of carbon dioxide, and the greenhouse effect. Volcanoes produced the proposed conditions. A massive volcanic eruption could have saturated the atmosphere with carbon dioxide so that it caused a sharp rise in temperatures worldwide. The excessive carbon dioxide would have permitted solar energy to enter the atmosphere but would have blocked the radiation of most surface heat back out into space, therefore causing the greenhouse effect. Rising temperatures could have killed off or reduced the activity of plankton, disrupting food chains and also messing up the planktons normal role in converting carbon dioxide to oxygen through photosynthesis. From there it would not have been long for all the dinosaurs to have been suffering, and then to become extinct.

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