Gaileo


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gaileo Gailileo 3

Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy)
Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri

Gaileo Galilei's father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a

nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings

to support his musical theories.  Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his

real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy.  He is chiefly

remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employment of

experimentation.  

After a spell teaching mathematics, first privately in Florence and then at the

university of Pisa, in 1592 Galileo was appointed professor of mathematics at the

university of Padua (the university of the Republic of Venice).  There his duties were

mainly to teach Euclids geometry in order to make use of astrology in their medical

practice.   However, Galileo apparently discussed more unconventional forms of

astronomy and natural philosophy in a public lecture he gave in connection with the

appearance of a New Star (now known as "Kepler's supernova") in 1604.  In a personal

letter written to Kepler (1571 - 1630) in 1598, Galileo had stated that he was a

Copernican (believer in the Theories of Copernicus).  No public sign of this belief was to

appear until many years later.

In the summer of 1609, Galileo heard about a spyglass that a Dutchman had shown

-1-



in Venice.  From these reports, and using his own technical skills as a mathematicians and

a workman, Galileo made a series of telescopes whose optical performance was much

better than that of the Dutch instrument.  The astronomical discoveries he made with his

telescopes were described in a short book called Message from the Stars published in

Venice in May 1610.  It caused a sensation.  Galileo claimed to have seen four small

bodies orbiting Jupiter.  These last, with an eye on getting a job in Florence, he promptly

named the "the Medicean stars."

It worked, Soon afterwards, Galileo became "mathematician and Natural

philosopher," to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. In Florence he continued his work on

mation and on mechanics, and began to get in disputes about Copernicanism.. In 1613 he

discovered that when seen in a telescope that Venus that Venus showed phases like those of the

moon, and therefore must orbit the Sun and not the Earth.  This did not enable one person to

decided between Copernician system, in which everything goes around the sun, the Tychonic the

one in which everything but the Earth and Moon goes around the sun which in turn goes around  

the Earth.  Most astronomers of the time in fact favored the Tychonic System.  However

Galileo showed a marked tendency to use all of his discoveries as evidence for

Copernicanism, and to do with great verbal as well as mathematical skill.  He seemed to

make a lot of by making his opponents look like fools. Moreover not all of them were

fools.
-2-
These eventually followed some expressions of interest by the Inquisition.  Prima

facie, Copernicanism was in contradiction with Scripture, and in 1616 Galileo was given

some kind of secret, but official, warning that he was not to defend Copernicanism.  Just

what was said on this occasion was to become a subject for dispute when Galileo was

accused of departing from this undertaking in his Dialogue concerning the two greatest

world systems, published in Florence in 1632.  Galileo, who was not in the best of health,

was summoned to Rome, found to be vehemently suspected of heresy, and eventually

condemned to house arrest, for life, at his villa at Arcetri.  He was also forbidden to

publish books.  By the standards of the time he had got off rather lightly.

Galileo's sight was failing, but he had devoted pupils, and he found it possible to

write up his studies on motion and the strength of his evidence.  The book Discourses on

two new sciences, was smuggled out of Italy and published in Leiden in the Netherlands

in 1638.

Galileo wrote most of his later works in vernacular, probably to distance himself

from the conventional learning of university teachers.  However, his books were

translated into Latin for the international market, and they proved to be immensely

influential. ... more

gaileo

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History of Space Exploration

Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration. From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier. That was until 1957, with the launch of the Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the first man-made satellite successfully launched out into outer space. In 1958, the United States matched the Soviets with their own satellite, Explorer III. After that, it became a free-for-all out into the darkest regions of the final frontier. The ascension into space for the United States started off with rockets, satellites, and probes then later moved on to shuttles and larger spacecrafts. In 1946, the United States started their climb towards the heavens with the NRL V-2. The rocket gave the first observations of the Sun's UV spectrum. In 1949, the NRL V-2 gave the first observations of solar X-rays. In 1958, the Explorer III became the US's first satellite and it also discovered Earth's radiation belt.

On August 17th, 1958, the US set its sights upon the moon with the Pioneer 0 but it exploded in its first stages of ascension. It was followed later in the year by Pioneer 1 and Pioneer 3 both lunar orbiters, but again failure because both separately failed to reach atmospheric escape velocity.

The following years Pioneer 4 and 5 were launched as space probes and are presently still in solar orbit. In 1962, the Aerobee Rocket was launched and observed the first x-ray star.

In the 1960's, NASA began the Ranger space probe program. They were NASA's earliest Moon exploration program probes. These spacecrafts were designed to perform a crash landing upon the Moon's surface. They were intended to take pictures and return scientific data up until the impact of the probe with the lunar surface. On April 23rd, 1962, the Ranger 4 became the first US lunar impact on the Moon's surface. The Soviets had done it first with Luna 2 on September 14th, 1959. The Ranger's provided scientists with more than 17,000 close up pictures of the lunar surface and specifically the areas of Mare Tranquillitatis and Ocean Procellarum. (Johnson) These pictures gave us more information about the Moon and its surface in just a few years than all the previous attempts put together, though Pioneer 3 and 5 missed the Moon and are in solar orbit.

The Mariner space program probes were designed to fly past and/or orbit planets, specifically Mercury, Venus and Mars. On August 27th, 1962, the US achieved the world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft when the Mariner 2 was launched. It arrived at Venus at a distance of 34,800 kilometers and scanned its surface with infrared and microwave radiometers. It also captured data that showed Venus' surface to be about 425 C. (Hamilton) On November 28th, 1964 the Mariner 4 was launched. It gave the first glimpse of Mars at close range, traveling within 9,920 kilometers of Mars' surface. It also confirmed Mar's thin atmosphere of carbon dioxide. (Cook)

On November 3rd, 1973, Mariner 10 was launched. It was the first dual planet mission. It recorded Venus' temperature to be -23 C and produced 10,000 pictures of Mercury covering 57% of the planet's surface. It also recorded the surface temperatures ranging from 187 C on the day side and -183 C on the night side. (Hamilton) Furthermore, it was also the first probe to use one planet's gravity to propel itself towards another planet. On April 30th, 1966, the Surveyor 1 achieved the US's first soft landing on the lunar surface. The Soviets beat the US with the Luna 9 soft landing on January 31st. The Surveyor series were unmanned spacecrafts designed to land on the Moon's surface. Their objective was to provide information about the lunar surface to see if the terrain was safe, in preparation for manned landings. Their legs were "instrumented to return data on the surface hardness of the Moon." Additionally, "Surveyor dispelled the fear that Apollo spacecraft might sink several feet or more into the lunar dust." (Johnson) Between August 10th, 1966 and ... more

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  • A: Gailileo 3 A: Gailileo 3 Gailileo 3 Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy) Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri Gaileo Galilei's father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. He is chiefly remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employme...
  • I: History Of Space Exploration I: History Of Space Exploration History Of Space Exploration Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration. From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier. That was until 1957, with the launch of the Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the first man-made satellite successfully launched out into ...
  • L: Gailileo L: Gailileo Gailileo Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy) Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri Gaileo Galilei\'s father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. He is chiefly remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employmen...
  • E: Modern Vs Premodern E: Modern Vs Premodern Modern Vs Premodern There is one simple way to classify the difference between the modern and the pre-modern, and that would be to separate them by years. Unfortunately this would not be cut and dried; it would be a rough estimate because no one really knows when the change took place, or if there even was a change. What is known for sure is that things did change. The moderns (became) set against ancient modes of thought and practice (Shapin, p. 5), and this led to a so-called scientific ...
  • O: History of Space Exploration O: History of Space Exploration History of Space Exploration Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration. From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier. That was until 1957, with the launch of the Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the first man-made satellite successfully launched out into ...
  • History of Space Exploration History of Space Exploration History of Space Exploration Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration. From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier. That was until 1957, with the launch of the Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the first man-made satellite successfully launched out into ...
  • Gailileo 3 Gailileo 3 Gailileo 3 Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy) Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri Gaileo Galilei\'s father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. He is chiefly remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employm...
  • Gailileo Gailileo Gailileo Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy) Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri Gaileo Galilei's father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. He is chiefly remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employment...
  • Space History Space History Space History Space History Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration. From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier. That was until 1957, with the launch of the Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the first man-made satellite successfully launched out into o...
  • Gailileo 3 Gailileo 3 Gailileo 3 Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy) Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri Gaileo Galilei's father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. He is chiefly remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employme...
  • History Of Space Exploration History Of Space Exploration History Of Space Exploration Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration. From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier. That was until 1957, with the launch of the Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the first man-made satellite successfully launched out into ...
  • Gailileo Gailileo Gailileo Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy) Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri Gaileo Galilei\'s father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. He is chiefly remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employmen...
  • Modern Vs Premodern Modern Vs Premodern Modern Vs Premodern There is one simple way to classify the difference between the modern and the pre-modern, and that would be to separate them by years. Unfortunately this would not be cut and dried; it would be a rough estimate because no one really knows when the change took place, or if there even was a change. What is known for sure is that things did change. The moderns (became) set against ancient modes of thought and practice (Shapin, p. 5), and this led to a so-called scientific ...
  • History of Space Exploration History of Space Exploration History of Space Exploration Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration. From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier. That was until 1957, with the launch of the Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the first man-made satellite successfully launched out into ...
  • History of Space Exploration History of Space Exploration History of Space Exploration Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration. From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier. That was until 1957, with the launch of the Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the first man-made satellite successfully launched out into ...
  • Gailileo 3 Gailileo 3 Gailileo 3 Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy) Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri Gaileo Galilei\'s father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. He is chiefly remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employm...
  • Gailileo Gailileo Gailileo Born: Feb 15 1564 in Pisa (now Italy) Died: Jan 8 1642 in Areetri Gaileo Galilei's father, Vincenzo Galilei (1520-1591), who described himself as a nobleman of Florence, was a professional musician. He carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Galileo studied medicine at the university of Pisa, but his real interests were always in mathematics and natural philosophy. He is chiefly remembered for his work on free fall, his use of the telescope and his employment...