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french villages Disease in africa

Disease in Africa
"The fact remains that lowland, tropical Africa may well have the most intractable disease environment in the world."(Bohannan & Curtin,35)  In order to understand diseases in Africa, one must first be acquainted with its geology.  Africa is a gigantic landmass that is over 5200 miles long and 4600 miles wide.  The continent is a vast plateau with five different types of physical regions.  The first type of physical region is called the Mediterranean -type climates. This type of region provides Africa with nutritious land for vegetation. Next there is the deserts and arid plains, located inland.  The Sahara and the Kalahari deserts are located here.  Then there is the savanna regions, which are covered with grass and trees.  The savanna regions occupy the largest physical region in all of Africa.  The region along the equator is made up of thick and humid forest growth.  This type of physical region is located in the Congo Basin along the equator.  It is important to understand the geology of Africa, because many of the diseases, which were born, had a lot to do with the climate and land region they were growing in.  Africa has struggled with many different types of disease within their society due to their type of land, climate and weather.  "Among all the diverse natural environments of the earth, tropical rain forests are the most variegated in the sense that more diverse forms of life share this kind of habitat than occupy drier, cooler regions."(McNeill,16)  Africa possesses the prefect breeding ground for many diseases.  There were many diseases and viruses that have had an impact on Africa, however trypanosomiasis, malaria, yellow fever, AIDS, smallpox, onchocerciasis and yaws were the most destructive.
African trypanosomiasis is a destructive disease that is often called "the sleeping sickness."  It is an infectious disease that is carried and distributed through two different parasites.  These parasites are the trypanosoma brucei gambiense and the trypanosoma rhodesiense.  Both parasites host and breed on the tsetse fly.  The tsetse fly is an inset that carries the disease through its bloodstream.  When the insect bites, it injects the disease through flesh, which then spreads through the body.  The tsetse fly is large and brown, making it easy to detect.  The fly only usually bites during the day and does not consider humans a primary host.  People who become prey, often involve themselves in areas where there is a lot of game activity. The disease, which is also an organism, attacks the central nervous system and tissue.  This leads to a "sleep" like affect, which eventually ends in death.  In the early 1900s, Uganda experienced devastating losses to its society due to trypanosomiasis.  The disease ended up killing over 200,000 people in less than 6 years.  "Understandably, the new colonial powers, including Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, and King Leopold's Congo Free State, perceived sleeping sickness to be a grave threat to African laborers and taxpayers, which in turn could dramatically reduce the utility of the new territories."(Kiple, 556)  Sleeping sickness is still a common disease that usually isn't discovered until severe symptoms set in.  Treatment is available today, only if the disease has not caused brain damage.  
Another disease that has had a major impact on Africa is malaria.  Malaria is ameboid-type parasites, which live in humans.  Malaria parasites multiply and ingest red blood cells in order to expand through a central nervous system.  Humans contract Malaria by falling victim to a mosquito that has the virus.  Once the mosquito bites its prey, the disease spreads fairly quickly.  Thus resulting in extremely fast death rates among humans.  The history of malaria can be traced all the way to AD 500.  It is a disease that still to this day devours humans.  "Malaria affects about 250 million people per year, killing between 1-2 million, mostly children."(Book Mark LEPORSEY)  Malaria was a disease that seemed to have the most impact on children, because young adults start to gain an amunity to the disease and eventually only suffer minor symptoms if they are affected.  Since children were mainly infected with malaria, a nickname was brought about called "black children's grave."  This nickname represented a large portion of tropical Africa. ... more

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The Iroquois




The Indian Tribe in North America that I chose to report on is the Iroquois. The Iroquois are one of the most important tribes because they were part of the Revolutionary war and sided with the British. I chose to research the Iroquois because they seem very interesting and they were a very advanced tribe. I also liked the fact that they played a role in the Revolutionary war.
The Iroquois were originally a confederacy of Five Nations which resided in upstate New York between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls. Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca were the names of the five original nations. Sometime between 1715 and 1722, the Tuscaroras, an Iroquoian tribe of North Carolina, which had moved to New York, were formally admitted to the confederacy.  
The name Iroquois was given to them like many other tribes, by their enemies. The Algonquin called them the Iroqu “rattlesnakes.” After the French added the Gallic suffix “-ois” to this insult, the name became Iroquois. The Iroquois call themselves Haudenosaunee meaning “people of the long house.”
Over time, they gained control of most of the Northeastern United States and eastern Canada. At its peak in 1680, their empire extended west from the north shore of Chesapeake Bay through Kentucky to the intersection of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers; then north following the Illinois River to the south end of Lake Michigan; east across all of lower Michigan, southern Ontario and neighboring parts of southwestern Quebec; and finally south through northern New England west of the Connecticut River through the Hudson and upper Delaware Valleys across Pennsylvania back to the Chesapeake.
The geographical location affected the Iroquois’ lives in many ways. There was an abundant supply of food and wood. Without that, no tribe can survive. They also had to design their shelter based on the climate. If they had a hole in the roof for the smoke for the fire then there had to be very little rain. If there was a lot of rain they might have had a way to close up the hole. The fence around their long houses was another signal that they built their houses based on their location.
When you think about their importance and their impact on history, it is hard to believe how few Iroquois there were in 1600 — probably less than 20,000. Their inland location protected them somewhat from the initial European penetration, but these had reached them by 1650 and, combined with warfare, cut their population to about half of its original number. Through the conquering of other Iroquoian-speaking enemies, they increased their population to 25,000 in 1660.
For now, their talent for diplomacy and political unity kept things under control, but forces which would destroy them had been set in motion. On the positive side, the conquering gave the Iroquois a claim to the lands of their former enemies. However, the Iroquois didn’t extend their conquering to non-Iroquoian speaking tribes and that caused the population to drop. Despite the incorporation of 1,500 Tuscarora in 1722 as a sixth member of the Five Nations, there were only 12,00 Iroquois by 1768. By the end of the Revolutionary War, they were less than 8,000.
The shelter for the Iroquois were called long houses. A normal long house was 150 feet long by 20 feet wide, hence the name long house. Each long house had a number of rooms. Each room was home to one family. There was a fire in between the two rooms and that was shared by both of the families. There was a hole in the roof for the smoke to go out of.
There was little to distinguish the Iroquois from their Iroquoian-speaking neighbors. For example, they all had the same social structure, the women owned all the property and determined the family relationship. Each Iroquois tribe was in one of three clans headed by the clan mother, turtle, bear, and wolf. After a man married, he moved into the long house of his wife and the children became members of her clan. The clan mothers were also the ones that voted for the chief.
The food of the Iroquois was mostly based on agriculture. Corn, beans, and squash ... more

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