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The Play Must Go West
Soon after the American Revolution, Americans began their expansion to the west. It was our Manifest Destiny to tame the wilds of the west and expand our nation from coast to coast. Families from all over would load up their belongings and travel to the newly purchased lands. People from New York, Philadelphia, Boston and all parts of the new nation brought with them their language, culture and belief systems. Along with this they also brought the theater. It was not long after people would begin to live in an area that the theater would take root. The progress of the theater in the United States can be traced along the same routes as the settlement of the west. Beginning on the east coast with early colonies the theater was carried with our ancestors to their new homes in the west. From St. Louise to Kansas City, from Kansas City to California and all parts in between. Horace Greeley said "Go west young man" and the theater followed.
In 1492 Christopher Columbus left Azones on a trip to discover a western sea route to the Orient. Seventy days later Columbus made land fall on what he thought was an outlying portion of Asia. Columbus would go to his death believing he had landed in Asia, he was wrong. Although he did open up a new world for Europeans to expand their culture into.(Billington 15)
Thought many early attempts where made to settle this new land. Most ended in disaster. In 1620 however, 128 years after Columbus made his brave but mistaken discovery of the new world, the pilgrims set out to make a permanent settlement in America. They put a shore in what is now called Massachusetts and formed a thriving, self governed colony.(Billington 57)
10 years later, John Wintrope brings 1000 colonist and founds the city of Boston. Wintropes British settlement had not been in the new world long, in fact less than a year, when they discovered that the Dutch had formed their own nearby settlement. The Dutch called their town New Amsterdam. This caused immediate competition and rivalry between the settlements.(Billington 60) After a war with the Dutch the city of New Amsterdam came into the possession of the British Empire and King Charles the Second. King Charles had newly been restored to the throne of England after a long forced vacation on the mainland of Europe. As a reward to those who supported his return, he annexed New Amsterdam and renamed it New York and gave large portions of it to his most loyal supporters.(Billington 67) In the ensuing years many English colonist came to the new world setting up towns and cities all along the Atlantic coast line. It is in these towns and cities that we see European culture, especially English culture, being planted in the new world. With this new culture being brought to this new and untamed land it is natural that the forms of entertainment would also not be far behind. The lands of the new world where now fertile for the seed of the theater.
In 1716 we have records of a theater being built in Willamsburg Virginia. This is probable the first theater built in the Americas. While there where probable plays and some small theatrical productions being done earlier, this is our first ever record of a building being built for this specific purpose.(Hornblow)
We know that in New York in 1752, the Hallams performed the Merchant of Venice. We also know that the Hallams used a theater that was build for use by Murray and Kean who had a troupe who had performed the same play along with Richard the III many years earlier. (Hornblow)
So theater came early to the Americas but was contained to the coastal areas much like the colonies where. It would take the formation of a new country and an expansion of the boarders of this new country to help theater on its western trek across the great expanses of North America.
Caused by what they believed was an erosions of their natural rights and being governed with out representation The colonies in America decided to take a bold move and break their ... more
Find essay on French Frontier
"Inevitably, being an uncontrolled system, means that the Internet will be subjected to subversive applications of some unscrupulous users." (Kershaw) The concept of the Internet was created in answer to a strategic problem faced by the United States government during the Cold war era. A nuclear attack would easily disrupt a traditional computer network and hence make communication impossible. The solution was found in a new type of network. A network where all nodes would be equal in status, that is to say each could send and receive messages. The resulting projects were the first steps towards the birth of the Internet, as we know it. Today, the Internet consists of several parts, which include the World Wide Web, FTP, IRC, News groups, Gopher, WAIS, Archie, and Email. The Internet is continuing to grow at a rate of 40% a year, with roughly 20 million users to date. Over the past few years, the issue of Internet censorship has been subject to an unprecedented amount of controversy. Both sides of the debate present very strong arguments about why the Internet should or should not be censored. The point most often brought forward by advocates of Internet censorship is that “inappropriate” material can all too easily land in the hands of children via this powerful new medium. “Inappropriate” mostly describes the sexually explicit and racist material that is easily found on the Internet. The debate that currently rages however centres mainly on pornographic material. The essay is divided into three content-based sections. The first section examines the data that is available about pornography on the Internet. Conclusions on significance of the data are offered. Section two examines the legal issues and difficulties surrounding the idea of censorship. The final section discusses alternative ways of protecting children from pornography and offers a final conclusion on the attributes of the problem and the suggestion of a solution. Censorship of Internet is a big issue and not much of it can be covered in an essay at this level. The essay deliberately focuses only on pornography. While many aspects had to be left out and others discussed minimally, the result of this essay remains a brief synopsis of relevant issues and conclusions on these issues. Section 1 In early 1995, a research team at the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania released one of the most revealing studies into online pornography. The value of study, titled “Marketing Pornography on the Information Superhighway” is realised mainly due to its massive sample size. There are several issues about pornography on the Internet that were highlighted by the study. The research team surveyed 917,410 “sexually explicit pictures, descriptions, short stories and film clips”. Of special interest were Usenet newsgroups, which are basically electronic forums. It was found that 83.5 percent of the digitised images stored on these newsgroups were pornographic pictures. This finding indicates that there clearly is a substantial amount of pornography on the net. This however does not necessarily indicate that this material is easy to find. To come to a conclusion, this student conducted several experiments using the on-line “Altavista” search engine. The key searchword “sex” was entered. 616,156 links were returned. Out of the first 20 entries listed on the first page only 2 links were to pornographic sites. The search keyword “tits” however, returned 69,920 links. Out of the first 20 links listed on the first page 17 were to pornographic websites or bulletin boards. Amidst all these links was one that led to a French children’s pen-pal club called “Les P’tits Garnements. After reviewing the posted messages and photographs on one of the bulletin boards that showed up as a link, it was apparent that the purpose of the site was purely for exchange of child pornography. It is most likely that a minor would come across explicit areas of the Internet through search engines. Children are very likely to search using traditionally rude four-letter words more as a source of childish amusement than anything else. There can be no argument that the resulting links do not justify the level of parental anxiety that we are witnessing today. Explicit sexual material on the Internet is not the result of an unfounded ... more
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