Looking for essays on free health care? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.
Enlightenment Ideas And Politcal Figuers Of The Era
Intro to European History
Enlightenment Ideas and
Political Figures of
The Enlightenment Era
The Enlightenment of the 18th century was an exciting period of history. For the first time since ancient Grecian times, reason and logic became center in the thoughts of most of elite society. The urge to discover and to understand replaced religion as the major motivational ideal of the age, and the upper class social scene all over Europe was alive with livid debate on these new ideas.
A French playwright who went by the pseudonym Voltaire is the most recognized and controversial Enlightenment author. Because of his trademark acidic wit, he was forced to flee the country after giving offence to a powerful nobleman. He spent the next two years in England where he came in contact with the pivotal Enlightenment idea of religious freedom and the freedom of the press. When he returned to France, he had some scathing things to say about the less than enlightened policies followed by the French monarchs, especially concerning religious intolerance. Because his ideas were generally offensive to the ruler of his country, the need to be able to leave France quickly to avoid prosecution was a consideration when deciding where he should live, which eventually was on the Swiss boarder. There he continued to treat on society and anything else that caught his imagination.
Along with Voltaire were many other Enlightened thinkers, or philosophes, as they came to be known. A man by the name of Rousseau was also a very influential personality. His essays mainly treated on social inequality and education.
An Italian by the name of Cesare Beccaria also discussed society, but more in terms of social control and matters of crime and punishment. He was an opponent of torture, capital punishment, and of any punishment that was done to excess or didnt fit the crime that warranted it. He arrived at his conclusions through the logic that was so popular of the day. An excellent example of this logic is in this phrase concerning capitol punishment: Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detest and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves? Rational arguments such as these permeated Enlightened conversations and didnt fail to be noticed by many of the great national rulers of the day.
One monarch who seemed to be particularly inclined to the Enlightenment philosophies was Emperor Joseph II of Austria. After the less enlightened reign of his mother, Empress Maria Theresa, he was able to finally institutionalize many of the ideas he had been mulling over and thinking about for years. His mother, being a staunch Catholic, saw little use for such trivial issues, but once Joseph finally attainted complete control over the empire, his reforms were widespread. Possibly to spite his mother, one of the first thing he did as emperor was seize much of the land occupied by various monastic sects, which he accomplished through his Edict of Idle Institutions. True to his Enlightened nature, he promptly turned the seized lands into schools and other institutions of learning. He abolished the death penalty, made everybody equal in the eyes of the law, and ratified legislation that called for complete religious toleration. He even attempted to make the Jews living in Austria more acceptable to society as a whole. He had only limited success on this front, but the attempt itself was a drastic step for a monarch of any country to date. He made great progress economically as well. Joseph II ended the monopolies that had unnaturally influenced his economy for decades and eliminated stifling internal trade barriers. After all was said and done, he had created around 11,000 laws in an attempt to transform his country into an embodiment of Enlightened ideals. Has he himself put it once, I have made Philosophy the lawmaker of my empire, her logical applications are going to transform Austria.
Despite his hopes, the reforms set forth by Joseph II were not as successful as he had hoped. He angered the nobles by releasing the peasants from serfdom, and the peasants were similarly distressed over the newfound freedoms which they had no experience dealing with. His reforms were simply ... more
Find essay on Free Health Care
Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where
people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who
were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied
opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When
these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of
people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise
have had. These gains have led to very real changes. Affirmative action programs
have not eliminated racism, nor have they always been implemented without
problems. However, there would be no struggle to roll back the gains achieved if
affirmative action policies were ineffective. The implementation of affirmative
action was America's first honest attempt at solving a problem, it had
previously chosen to ignore. In a variety of areas, from the quality of health
care to the rate of employment, blacks still remain far behind whites. Their
representation in the more prestigious professions is still almost
insignificant. Comparable imbalances exist for other racial and ethnic
minorities as well as for women. Yet, to truly understand the importance of
affirmative action, one must look at America's past discrimination to see why,
at this point in history, we must become more "color conscious".
History Of Discrimination In America: Events Leading To Affirmative Action. The
Declaration of Independence asserts that "all men are created equal."
Yet America is scarred by a long history of legally imposed inequality. Snatched
from their native land, transported thousands of miles-in a nightmare of disease
and death-and sold into slavery, blacks in America were reduced to the legal
status of farm animals. A Supreme Court opinion, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857),
made this official by classifying slaves as a species of "private
property." Even after slavery was abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment in
1865, American blacks, other minorities, and women continued to be deprived of
some of the most elementary right of citizenship. During the Reconstruction,
after the end of the Civil War, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868,
making blacks citizens and promised them the "equal protection of the
laws." In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment was passed, which gave blacks the
right to vote. Congress also passed a number of civil rights laws barring
discrimination against blacks in hotels, theaters, and other places. However,
the South reacted by passing the "Black Codes, " which severely
limited the rights of the newly freed slaves, preventing them in most states
from testifying in courts against whites, limiting their opportunities to find
work, and generally assigning them to the status of second or third class
citizen. White vigilante groups like the Klu Klux Klan began to appear, by
murdering and terrorizing blacks who tried to exercise their new rights.
"Legal" ways were also found for circumventing the new laws; these
included "grandfather clauses", poll taxes, white only primary
elections, and constant social discrimination against and intimidation of
blacks, who were excluded form education and from any job except the most
menial. In 1883, the Supreme Court declared a key civil rights statute, one that
prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, unconstitutional. And in
1896, Plessy v. Ferguson (163 U.S. 537 ), the Court declared that the
state of Louisiana had the right to segregate their races in every public
facility. Thus began the heyday of "Jim Crow" legislation. In Justice
John Marshall Harlan's lone dissent, he realized it was a mockery. He wrote,
" We boast of the freedom enjoyed by our peoples above all other peoples.
But it is difficult to reconcile that boast with a state of the law which,
practically, puts a brand of servitude and degregation upon a large class of our
fellow citizens, our equals before the law. This thin disguise of 'equal'
accommodations for passengers in railroad coaches will not mislead anyone, or
atone for the wrong this day done." Not until sixty years later, in Brown
v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (347 U.S. 483 ), was Plessy
overturned. Chief Justice earl Warren declared the unanimous opinion of the
court by saying: "We cannot turn the clock back to 1868, when the Amendment
was adopted, or even to 1896, when Plessy v. Ferguson was written." In
today's world, "separate educational facilities are inherently
unequal." This decision sparked racial tensions all across America. in
1957, President Eisenhower had to call federal troops into Little Rock,
Arkansas, after the state's governor forcibly barred black children from
entering white schools. In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined, for not
moving to the back of a public bus, ... more
What long should essays be?
Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.
What makes an effective essay?
An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.
What should be included on an essay?
A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.
What They say About Free Essay
I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling
F: Advantages For, And About Children
Advantages For, And About Children DEP 2100 Participation Assignment Number Three The trend to postpone childbearing has resulted in many children having older parents. What do you see as advantages and disadvantages for these children? What benefits and problems might result for parents being older? Advantages for children: -their parents are more relaxed -their parents have more money -their parents are wiser and can teach them more about life Advantages for parents: -they have the means to su...
R: Enlightenment Ideas And Politcal Figuers Of The Er
Enlightenment Ideas And Politcal Figuers Of The Era Intro to European History 3-3-99 Enlightenment Ideas and Political Figures of The Enlightenment Era The Enlightenment of the 18th century was an exciting period of history. For the first time since ancient Grecian times, reason and logic became center in the thoughts of most of elite society. The urge to discover and to understand replaced religion as the major motivational ideal of the age, and the upper class social scene all over Europe was ...
E: Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise hav...
E: Witch Of Wall Street
Witch Of Wall Street A musical based on the life of Americas first great female financier, Hetty Green After watching the play, The Witch of Wall Street, and giving it a lot of thought I have analyzed the questions we were given and decided that just answering one wouldnt do the play or the storyline any justice. Therefore I have decided to run through the play in segments answering all five questions in the process of doing so. 1- Describe the plot of the play. 2- Describe the obstacles and o...
: A public relations proposal for the american egg b
A public relations proposal for the american egg board A Public Relations Proposal for the American Egg Board, 1997 AN EGG IS ALWAYS AN ADVENTURE - OSCAR WILDE Eggs should be avoided because they are high in cholesterol. This is the biggest MYTH that has cracked the good reputation of the egg in the past years. In 1945, the number of eggs consumed per capita each year was 402. Then the news broke - scientists discovered a link between high cholesterol levels in the bloodstream and an increased...
Abortion Abortion Life or Death Who Chooses? In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, so that in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signed a declaration of the United Nations promising every human being the right to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at the same time, stated that the utmost respect for huma...
E: The Benefits of Science and Technology
The Benefits of Science and Technology Man, powered by his imagination and inquisitive character, has wondered he mechanisms of Nature since time infinite. This quest for the truth, the ways in which his surrounding works, has led to many a scientific discoveries and innovations. Since the art of making fire and creating handcrafted tools, our civilization has come a long way. Science and Technology are making advances at an amazing rate. From telephones to the Internet, calculators to computers...
A: The Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The Effects of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was absolutely beneficial to the progress of the world from the 1800s all the way to present day. Sacrifices were made which allowed technological advancements during the Industrial Revolution, which in turn, created happiness, life opportunities, and an over-all, definite amelioration of life. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, many hardships had to be overcome, causing great grief to most of the population. Faith wa...
L: What is zen
What is zen Introduction Zen is simply a way for us to awaken from our slumber. It is just a way for us to focus on our present experience, living in the moment. It is simply paying attention to our actual experiences as they are: a breeze brushing through your hair, pristine water wetting your lips, a stomach ache, the laughter of children playingseeing what you see, feeling what you feel. It is being aware of all the colors, forms, sights, sounds, touch, taste, and smell of your surroundings....
T: Great Expectations- Character Analysis
Great Expectations- Character Analysis Estella Havisham: Most readers are appalled at the cold-hearted and cruel ways of Estella, but any criticism directed at her is largely undeserved. She was simply raised in a controlled environment where she was, in essence, brainwashed by Miss Havisham. Nonetheless, her demeanor might lead one to suspect that she was a girl with a heart of ice. Estella is scornful from the moment she is introduced, when she remarks on Pip\'s coarse hands and thick boots. H...
H: Cubas Politics
Cuba`s Politics While the isle of Cuba was initially discovered on October 27, 1492 during one of Columbus first voyages, it wasnt actually claimed by Spain until the sixteenth century. However, its tumultuous beginnings as a Spanish sugar colony provides an insightful backdrop into the very essence of the countrys political and economic unrest. From its early revolutionary days to the insurrectional challenge of the Marxist-Leninist theories emerged the totalitarian regime under Fidel Cast...
Abortion When does life actually begin? When, if ever, is it right to terminate a pregnancy? These are some of the moral dilemmas that are faced when dealing with the issue of abortion. Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy. There are many different stands held on the issue of abortion. For those holding a conservative view on abortion, abortion is never acceptable except when necessary to save the life of a pregnant woman. In contrast, the liberal view believes that abortion is always ethi...
C: Alzheimers Disease
Alzheimer`s Disease Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the most common of the dementing illnesses. A progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain, causing impaired memory, thinking and behavior. A person with Alzhiemers Disease may experience personality and behavior changes, impaired judgment, confusion and difficulty finishing thoughts, following directions or even finding the right word to say in a conversation. Once advanced the sufferer may require a caretaker as daily chores be...
Stress This research paper explains stress and its causes and cures. The research paper will attempt to determine whether there is an effective way to cure stress. Stress is an integral part of life. The complete absence of any stress results in death. Stress plays a key role in daily life, influencing - if not governing - happiness, productivity and health. Stress is known to cause various psychiatric disorders involving anxiety and depression, including posttraumatic stress disorder, major dep...
R: Music Therapy
Music Therapy Music therapy is the prescribed use of music and musical interventions in order to restore, maintain, and improve emotional, physical, physiological, and spiritual health and well-being (Lindberg). So one finds the selections under the New Age/Relaxation section of the record store about as relaxing as water torture? Just because one's taste runs more to Sousa than to soothing doesn't mean one can't reap all these relaxation benefits music is supposed to have. Music therapy works p...
E: 19th Century Women Authors
19th Century Women Authors 19th Century Women Authors Some of the most influential women authors of all time lived in the 19th century. These women expressed their inner most thoughts and ideas through their writings. They helped to change society, perhaps without knowing it, through poetry, novels, and articles. Emily Dickinson, Harriet Jacobs, Kate Chopin, Louisa May Alcott, and Elizabeth Oakes Smith are the best-known controversial and expressive women authors of their time. On December 10, 1...
Aids AIDS - What's new ? ------------------- Is the message getting through? We already know enough about AIDS toprevent its spread, but ignorance, complacency, fear and bigotry continue to stop many from taking adequate precautions to stop the risk of getting the aids virus. We know enough about how the infection is transmitted to protect ourselves from it without resorting to such extremes as mandatory testing, enforced quarantine or total celibacy. But too few people are getting the AIDS mess...
Right to Unite
Right to Unite Sam* and Alex* have been together for two years. Recently, they decided that they would like to buy a house together. Unfortunately, they are homosexual and are having trouble attaining a loan.. If they were married, as they one day hope to be, there would be no problem getting a home loan . Marriage is not an option for Sam and Alex in the state where they live. Because they are gay, they are unable to legalize their relationship in 48 of the 50 states. The issue of gay marriage ...
Yellow Wall Paper And Women Role In the nineteenth century, women in literature were often portrayed as submissive to men. Literature of the period often characterized women as oppressed by society, as well as by the male influences in their lives. The Yellow Wallpaper presents the tragic story of a woman's descent into depression and madness. Gilman once wrote Women's subordination will only end when women lead the struggle for their own autonomy, thereby freeing man as well as themselves, beca...
Euthanisia In recent years, Euthanasia has become a very heated debate. It is a Greek word that means easy death but the controversy surrounding it is just the opposite. Whether the issue is refusing prolonged life mechanically, assisting suicide, or active euthanasia, we eventually confront our socity's fears toward death itself. Above others, our culture breeds fear and dread of aging and dying. It is not easy for most of the western world to see death as an inevitable part of life. However,...
Cuba and embargo
Cuba and embargo By: patty young E-mail: email@example.com Cuba and the Affects of the Embargo The island nation of Cuba, located just ninety miles off the coast of Florida, is home to 11 million people and has one of the few remaining communist regimes in the world. Cubas leader, Fidel Castro, came to power in 1959 and immediately instituted a communist program of sweeping economic and social changes. Castro allied his government with the Soviet Union and seized and nationalized billions of ...
Aids Aids by sean ross How is HIV Diagnosed? You can get tested for HIV in a number of locations -- including public clinics, AIDS organizations, physicians' offices, and hospitals. Many locations give the test for free. You can choose between anonymous tests, in which you do not give your name to the HealthCare provider, or confidential tests, in which you do give your name. Test sites should provide trained counselors who can offer you support and guidance, no matter what the test result.(Balc...
Emperor Kang-hsi Emperor Kang-hsi ruled China from 1661 to 1722 and his reign is captured by Jonathan D. Spences book Emperor of China. The different chapters of the book deal with certain aspects of the Emperors life. Aspects that the history books to normally deal with. The information in Spences book is based on Emperor Kang-hsis correspondence, his own writings. This writing maybe biased towards himself, but no other piece of information could provide insight into his mind. The book is...
Chinas Population Problem
China\'s Population Problem China\'s Population Problem The Chinese government has taken the enforcement of family planning and birthrate laws to an extreme by violating the civil rights of its citizens, which has had bad effects on the morale of its people (Whyte 161). China\'s population has grown to such an enormous size that it has become a problem to both the people and government. China, the most populous country in the world, has an estimated population of about one thousand-one hundred-t...
3 Non Traditional Religions Voodoo, Spiritualism,
3 Non Traditional Religions Voodoo, Spiritualism, Cults Religion is primary agent of social control in our society. Due to its communally held beliefs and principles, we have a foundation on which we can rest the laws, values, and the main doctrine, of almost any society. Here in America, we have tremendous freedom in both establishing and in choosing the religion of our choice. This freedom has given birth to many non-traditional religions and practices. When discussing the topic of social cont...