Foreign Policy Of The United States


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foreign policy of the united states A Timeline of the Holocaust

The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and their collaborators as a central act of state during World War II. In 1933
approximately nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed.
Although Jews were the primary victims, hundreds of thousands of Roma (Gypsies) and at least 250,000 mentally or physically disabled persons were also victims of Nazi genocide.
As Nazi tyranny spread across Europe from 1933 to 1945, millions of other innocent people were persecuted and murdered. More than three million Soviet prisoners of war were
killed because of their nationality. Poles, as well as other Slavs, were targeted for slave labor, and as a result, almost two million perished. Homosexuals and others deemed
"anti-social" were also persecuted and often murdered. In addition, thousands of political and religious dissidents such as communists, socialists, trade unionists, and Jehovah's
Witnesses were persecuted for their beliefs and behavior and many of these individuals died as a result of maltreatment.

The concentration camp is most closely associated with the Holocaust and remains an enduring symbol of the Nazi regime. The first camps opened soon after the Nazis took power
in January 1933; they continued as a basic part of Nazi rule until May 8, 1945, when the war, and the Nazi regime, ended.

The events of the Holocaust occurred in two main phases: 1933-1939 and 1939-1945.

I. 1933-1939:

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was named Chancellor, the most powerful position in the German government, by the aged President Hindenburg who hoped Hitler could lead the
nation out of its grave political and economic crisis. Hitler was the leader of the right-wing National Socialist German Workers Party (called the Nazi Party for short); it was, by 1933,
one of the strongest parties in Germany, even though * reflecting the country's multi-party system * the Nazis had only won a plurality of 33 percent of the votes in the 1932 elections to
the German parliament (Reichstag).

Once in power, Hitler moved quickly to end German democracy. He convinced his cabinet to invoke emergency clauses of the Constitution which permitted the suspension of
individual freedoms of the press, speech, and assembly. Special security forces * the Special State Police (the Gestapo), the Storm Troopers (S.A.), and the Security Police (S.S.) *
murdered or arrested leaders of opposition political parties (communists, socialists, and liberals). The Enabling Act of March 23, 1933, forced through a Reichstag already purged of
many political opponents, gave dictatorial powers to Hitler.

Also in 1933, the Nazis began to put into practice their racial ideology. Echoing ideas popular in Germany as well as most other western nations well before the 1930s, the Nazis
believed that the Germans were "racially superior" and that there was a struggle for survival between them and "inferior races." They saw Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and the
handicapped as a serious biological threat to the purity of the "German (Aryan) Race,"[footnote #1] what they called the "master race."

Jews, who numbered around 500,000 in Germany (less than one percent of the total population in 1933), were the principal target of Nazi hatred. The Nazis mistakenly identified
Jews as a race and defined this race as "inferior." They also spewed hatemongering propaganda which unfairly blamed Jews for Germany's economic depression and the country's
defeat in World War I (1914-1918).

In 1933, new German laws forced Jews to quit their civil service jobs, university and law court positions, and other areas of public life. In April 1933, a boycott of Jewish businesses
was instituted. In 1935, laws proclaimed at Nuremberg stripped German Jews of their citizenship even though they retained limited rights. These "Nuremberg Laws" defined Jews
not by their religion or by how they wanted to identify themselves but by the blood of their grandparents. Between 1937 and 1939, new anti-Jewish regulations segregated Jews
further and made daily life very difficult for them: Jews could not attend public schools, go to theaters, cinemas, or vacation resorts, or reside, or even walk, in certain sections of
German cities. ... more

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Facts that lead to poverty: th

Poverty occurs in most parts of the world.  Nevertheless, the more serious and problematical poverty takes part in the third world and the southern parts of the globe.  First of all, we have to clearly define the word “poverty”.  In a broad sense, it means that people within this “poverty” region are poor or have a lower average income per capita than other regions.  To a deeper approach, we refer “poverty” as people have low educational backgrounds, lack of food supplies, or people with lower standard of livings, etc.  According to the Webster’s New World Dictionary, the word “poverty” can be defined as: 1) the condition or quality of being poor  2) deficiency; inadequacy  3) scarcity  (Webster’s p.461).  Generally in this essay, we will examine the facts that lead to the poverty of these third world and southern countries.  
The first and the most serious problem that causes by poverty are hunger, or preciously, malnutrition.  We can find these kinds of problems almost all over Africa and some other underdeveloped countries.  These were witnessed by thousands of people through TV, radio, newspaper, journals, etc.  “In the early 1980s, the mass media dramatically brought us the picture of hunger from Africa – starving children, skin and bone, with their bloated bellies, too weak to even stand up.” (Warnock p.1)  At the same time, people living in more developed countries or wealthy states are enjoying different kinds of delicious meals and dumping whatever they don’t like.  Why would this happen?  Can we refer this to the government or economical policies that rise the problems?  To further explore the problem of hunger in Africa, we can easily relate this to poverty.  In fact, there may be some other problems that cause the hunger.  For example, local drought in the African Sahel that damages the cropping; which in turn shorten the local food supplies.  The other factor is the rapid population growth in Africa.  Increasing capita means an increase demand of food.  People in Africa are rarely taught the knowledge of birth-control.  “If you have money you eat well, no matter how fast the population around you is growing and no matter how short the supplies of energy or land or fertilizer.” (Kent p.77)  According to Kent’s view, we shall see that money can buy off the problem of hunger easily.  But why Africa is still facing a lot of famine problems within its region?  This can be explained by the “chain-effect” of poverty and hunger.  If people are poor, they won’t have enough to produce in order to exchange for money.  Without money, they will suffer from hunger and famine and not be able to produce efficiently due to their lack of energy.  Now that we can see the problem is magnetized.  
The other issues that rise poverty in Africa is the irrational economical policies and huge amount of financial debts.  “According to U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, the debt-service obligations within African countries dedicating an estimated 34 percent of the income generated by the export of goods and services to interest payments.”  (Reeves p.115)  We can see that many of the incomes generated by the working forces are obligating for the foreign debt payments.  One of the irrational policies that spread hunger in Africa is the structural adjustment program (SAPs):
…promoted by the World Bank and other donors.  Central to adjustment programs, cuts in government food subsidies have triggered riots in many African capitals during the last several years and have meant that many families are unable to purchase sufficient amounts of bread, sugar, or other basic commodities… Throughout the continent, SAPs have called for the reduction of the often-bloated civil service sector, triggering widespread urban unemployment, and have also prescribed repeated currency devaluation, thus reducing the purchasing power of consumers.  (Reeves p.124)
The third factor that triggers hunger is the militarization Africa.  Throughout the years, in wars were fought inside and outside the lands of Africa.  These wars had negatively weakened the production of the people.  “War turns farmlands into battle zones, removes able-bodied producers from the agricultural sector, disrupts transport and marketing, and directs the bulk of foreign exchange earnings to the military.” (Reeves p.111)  As ... more

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